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(W. Ferger: de Vocativi usu Plautino Terentianoque. Strasburg, 1889.)

In Latin the Vocative is distinguished in form from the Nominative only in the Singular of the Second Declension; and that not always in Plautus, in the colloquial language of endearment, e.g.

But Plautus and Terence recognize a distinction between puere Vocative and puer Nominative (sometimes Vocative) which has disappeared by the classical period. O is added to a Vocative in emotional utterance, e.g. Trin. 1072certe is est, is est profecto. O mi ere exoptatissume!”, in the invocation of absent persons, etc., e.g. Trin. 617O ere Charmides, quom absenti hic tua res distrahitur tibi, utinam te rediisse salvom videam!”; but is usually omitted, e.g.

O Iuppiter! is common in Terence, but Plautus uses Iuppiter! without O. (Pro Iuppiter! is also used by both.)

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