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The history of the Italic Verb is full of difficulty. The Passive in -r it shares with some other Indo-European languages; and from a consideration of these, as well as of the Italic Dialects, it would seem that this Passive was originally an Impersonal governing an Accusative Case. The Latin Passive, as far back as we can trace it, has Person-endings, and therefore must have followed that tendency which appears in the occasional change of an Impersonal to a Personal Verb in Early Latin (cf. Priscian 1, pp. 432, 561 H.), e.g. and also in the curious phrase, Rud. 1241mihi istaec videtur praeda praedatum irier” (see below, 41). Like me veretur for classical Latin vereor (see above, II. 8) is mihi dolet, for doleo (see my note on Capt. 928) e.g. Men. 439mihi dolebit, non tibi, siquid ego stulte fecero”, Ter. Phorm. 162. But we see in Plautus a marked predilection for the 3 Singular Passive used impersonally, e.g. and the common phrase facere certumst ‘I have decided to do it;’ and this may be, in a way, a survival of the old Impersonal stage. Whether we find also survival of the primitive construction, the government of an Accusative Case by this 3 Singular Passive is not certain. I think that we do in lines like

The intermixture of Active and Passive Infinitive in a passage like Most. 959 is thoroughly Plautine: “triduom unum est haud intermissum hic esse et bibi,
scorta duci, pergraecari, fidicinas, tibicinas
ducere.

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