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The use of Adverbs with esse is a well-known feature of colloquial Latin. Notable examples are It is most frequently Impersonal, e.g. The difference of pulchre sum and pulchre est mihi may find its true parallel in the change from an Impersonal to a Personal use of a Verb, e.g. doleo for dolet mihi, lubent for lubet illis (see V. 1). Or the origin of the construction may be the identity of sense in esse and se habere; for with se habere the Adverb is appropriate, e.g. Poen. 235nam quom sedulo munditer nos habemus” (cf. I. 4). We find a combination of Adjective and Adverb in lines like Capt. 271proxumum quod sit bono quodque a malo longissime2 (compare Epid. 409,plane hercle hoc quidem est”, with Capt. 564, etc.,pol planum id quidem est”; and see above, III. 1). The same use of the Adverb is found with fio and facio, e.g.

1 Optume est, e.g. Capt. 10, is Superlative of bene est, whereas optumum est means ‘it is the best course to take,’ etc., e.g. Capt. 557concedi optumum est” ‘retreat is advisable.’

2 For examples of longe esse, see Redslob in Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift 18, 816.

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