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(Zimmermann: Gebrauch der Conjunctionen quod und quia im älteren Latein. Posen, 1880.)

Quando, properly Temporal (see 10), has sometimes in Plautus and always in Terence (except perhaps Adelph. 206) a Causal sense (like quandoquidem), e.g.

A fuller list of examples is given by Scherer (see p. 106, above.)

Quia was apparently an I-stem Neuter Pl, as quod an O-stem Neuter Singular of the Pronoun. The two Conjunctions thus differ as mira sunt and mirum (est) (see 2 s.v. ‘si’). In Plautus quia is more frequent than quod (whereas in classical Latin quod attains the supremacy), and is always selected for answering such questions as begin with an Interrogative, e.g.

Examples of the equivalence of quod and quia are:

Quia is often strengthened by the Particle enim (see above, 2 s.v.), e.g. Capt. 884A. quid tu per barbaricas urbes iuras? B. quia enimasperae sunt.

Quom, as has been already mentioned, is the equivalent of quod in sentences like quom tu es liber gaudeo. We cannot assign a definite Mood to Old Latin quom, as we can assign the Subjunctive to Causal quom in classical Latin. It follows the variable course of the Relative qui, which is found now with Indicative, e.g. Bacch. 464stultus es, qui illi male aegre patere dici”, now with Subjunctive, e.g. Mil. 370ego stulta et mora multum, quae cum hoc insano fabuler”, according to the nuance of the sentence in which it stands. (On the nuance of Subjunctive and Indicative see V, 24-31

But since it is generally an actual fact which is assigned as cause, the Indicative is greatly predominant with Causal quom. Examples of Subjunctive are:

On quippe qui, see above, s.v. The line between the Temporal and the Causal use of a Conjunction is not always distinct. See above (s.v.) on postquam with a half Causal sense, e.g. Ter. Adelph. prol. 1postquam poeta sensit scripturam suam ab iniquis observari, . . indicio de se ipse erit, vos eritis iudices”. Quoniam (i.e. quom iam) is never (or hardly ever) Temporal after Plautus (see below 10), and in many of his lines it stands on the border-line between the two senses, e.g.

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