previous next

Copulative.

(Sjögren: de particulis copulativis apud Plautum et Terentium. Upsala, 1900.)

Asyndeton is common in Early Latin, e.g. “aequom bonumMen. 580 (but elsewhere with Copula, e.g. Curc. 65, Ter. Heaut. 788istuc, Chremes, aequi bonique facio”); often in alliterative phrases, e.g.

In Terence it is restricted to certain formulas, e.g. ancillas servos.

Two Pronouns never stand in Asyndeton in the Dramatists; we find a Copula always employed, e.g. ego et tu, me atque te, etc. Two Prepositions rarely, e.g. Cas. 664sub arcis, sub tectis latentes” (but normally cum . . . cum, etc., e.g. Most. 392,cum hac cum istac”, Curc. 289cum libris cum sportulis”). With some phrases in Plautus we find that this or that Copula has associated itself; thus atque (ac) is normally found

-que normally et normally joins sanus and salvus, etc., e.g. also Numerals, whether the smaller or the larger one precedes, e.g. Merc. 673octoginta et quattuor” (but Most. 630quattuor quadraginta”).

Both que and et appear in Pronominal phrases like me meosque, me et meos, etc., while atque is usual in me atque hos, etc.; both atque and et in Commands like i (abi) atque (et) fac, etc., although Asyndeton, i (abi) fac, is more usual (on abi ac suspende te, see above); and two Imperatives normally stand in Asyndeton, when the second has the Particle ne, e.g.

Atque is the favourite Copula for Prepositions which begin with a Vowel, e.g.

Ve is the Copula used, as in classical Latin, with , si (see 2 on sive), with avoidance of nēque,’ ‘sique; also with ni ‘unless,’ e.g. Rud. 1420ad cenam vocem, ni daturus nihil sim . . nive adeo vocatos credam vos esse ad cenam foras.Utque is also avoided, perhaps through fear of confusion with utique; and although quique is found (e.g. Pseud. 1086qui nili faciat quique infitias non eat”), still quive seems to take its place in a line like Poen. 451qui . . immolarit quive ullum turis granum sacruficaverit.” (For other examples see Langen Beiträge, p. 96.) The phrases plus minusque and plus minusve, malum damnumque and malum damnumve, and the like are practically equivalent.

Noteworthy combinations of Copulas are

Among the Plautine Copulas must be included quaqua, e.g.

On special uses of atque and et, see 2 s.vv.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: