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αὐτός , ή, ό: same, self.—(1) pronoun of identity, ἦρχε δὲ τῷ αὐτὴν ὁδὸν ἥν περ οἱ ἄλλοι (the same way, like τὴν αὐτήν in Attic), Od. 8.107, Il. 12.225. (The article when joined to αὐτός in Homer is demonstrative, e. g. τὼ δ᾽ αὐτὼ μάρτυροι ἔστων, ‘these’ two men themselves, not ‘the same’ two, Il. 1.338, Od. 16.334; once occurs crasis, ωὑτὸς ἀνήρ, ‘that’ same man, Il. 5.396).—(2) pronoun of emphasis and antithesis, as one person is contrasted with another, or with some possession or part of himself, the extent to which this antithetic idea is carried forming a highly characteristic feature of the Homeric style; πολλα?ς δ᾽ ι?φθι?μους ψυ_χα?ς Ἄιδι προΐαψεν | ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν, hurled their souls to Hades, but made them, i. e. their bodies, a prey to dogs, Il. 1.4 ; εἰσενόησα βιὴν Ἡρα_κληείην | εἴδωλον: αὐτὸς δὲ μετ᾽ α?θανάτοισι θεοῖσιν | τέρπεται, κτλ., Heracles himself in heaven, his ghost in hell, Od. 11.602 ; δησάντων σε ὀρθὸν ἐν ἱστοπέδῃ, ἐκ δ᾽ αὐτοῦ πείρατ̓ ἀνήφθω, let them tie you standing up on the mast-block, with the rope ends fastened to (the mast) itself, Od. 12.51 ; Πριάμοιο δόμον ξεστῇς αἰθούσῃσι τετυγμένον, αὐτὰρ ἐν αὐτῷ, i. e. in the house itself, as distinguished from its corridor, Il. 6.243, and so continually. (The occurrence of αὐτός in the oblique cases as simple unemphatic personal pronoun is denied altogether to Homer by some scholars, and in most of the seeming instances an emphasis or contrast may be detected, as clearly e. g. Il. 3.365; still the approach to the later use is sometimes uncomfortably close, e. g. Il. 2.347).— Here belong such expressions as ὑπὸ λόφον αὐτόν, ‘directly’ under the plume, Il. 13.615, Od. 10.158 ; δύω ἵππους αὐτοῖσιν ὄχεσφιν, ‘chariot and all,’ Il. 8.290 ; αὐτός περ ἐών, ‘by himself,’ i. e. alone, Il. 8.99, Od. 14.8, 450.—Here, too, belong the reflexive uses, Od. 4.247, etc.; αὐτῶν γὰρ ἀπωλόμεθ᾽ ἀφραδίῃσιν, by our own folly, Od. 10.27 ; τὴν αὐτοῦ φιλέει, loves his own, Il. 9.342, Od. 2.125; similarly, αὐτῶν γὰρ σφετέρῃσιν ἀτασθαλίῃσιν ὄλοντο, Od. 1.7; τὰ ς) αὐτῆς ἔργα κόμιζε, Il. 6.490, ‘their own,’ ‘thine own.’
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