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ὑπό, ὑπαί (cf. sub): under. — I. adv., underneath, below, beneath, of motion or rest, ὑπὸ δὲ θρῆνυν ποσὶν (‘for the feet’) ἥσει, Il. 14.240; ὑπὸ δὲ θρῆνυς ποσὶν ἦεν, Od. 1.131; χεῦεν ὕπο ῥῶπας, Od. 16.47; often to indicate the position of parts of the body (in ‘plastic’ style as if one were looking at a picture up and down), ὑπὸ γούνατ᾽ ἔλυ_σεν (the knees ‘beneath him’), ὑπὸ δ᾽ ἔτρεμε γυῖα, Il. 10.390; sometimes causal, thereunder, thereby, Od. 8.380, Il. 8.4; thus to denote accompaniment in music, λίνον δ᾽ ὑπὸ κα_λὸν ἄειδεν (to it, the harp), Il. 18.570, Od. 21.411. — II. prep., (1) w. gen., of position or motion; under, out or forth from under; ὑπ᾽ ἀνθερεῶνος ἐλεῖν, κρήδεμνον ὑπὸ στέρνοιο τανύσσαι, Od. 5.346, and thus often w. verbs of hitting; ῥέει κρήνη ὑπὸ σπείους, ‘from beneath,’ Od. 9.141; then of agency, influence, by, through, in consequence of; δαμῆναι, θνήσκειν ὑπό τινος (‘at the hands of’), φεύγειν ὑπό τινος (‘before’), Il. 18.149 ; ὑπ᾽ ἀνάγκης (‘from necessity,’ ‘perforce’), ὑπὸ δείους (‘for’), ὑπὸ φρι_κὸς Βορέω, Il. 23.692. —(2) w. dat., of position, under, and w. verbs of motion when the resulting position of rest is chiefly in mind, πι?πτειν, τιθέναι τι ὑπό τινι, χ 449, Il. 16.378; instrumental or causal, under (not ‘by’ as w. the gen., but rather denoting subjection), ὑπὸ χερσί τινος θανέειν, ὀλέσαι ψυ_χήν, γήραι ὕπο α?ρημένος, Od. 11.136; of power, mastery, δέδμητο λα_ὸς ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ, γ 305, Il. 24.636; and of accompanying circumstances, ὑπὸ πομπῇ (‘under the guidance’), πνοιῇ ὕπο (‘with the breeze’), Od. 4.402. —(3) w. acc., of motion (or extension), under, but often where the idea of motion is quite faint, ζώειν ὑπ᾽ αὐγᾶς ἠελίοιο, thinking of the duration of life, Od. 15.349, Il. 5.267; of time, during, Il. 16.202, Il. 22.102.
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