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227. The perfect looks at both ends of an action. The time between these ends is considered as a present. When one end is considered, the present is used; when the other, the aorist. Hence present and perfect are often used side by side, and the translation into English is often present (228); the aorist is the shorthand of the perfect (248-51); and the perfect is sometimes used even of a past action that is dated (233).

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