previous next

286. Periphrases with the perfect participle.

Most common are the periphrases with the perfect participle, which has more of an adjectival character than the others. Theoretically these periphrases ought to emphasize the maintenance of the result.1 But it must be remembered that many middle and passive verbs regularly use the periphrasis in the third person plural, and that the periphrastic form is almost the only form employed in the subjunctive and optative,2 so that a certain indifference is bred thereby. “ἐφθαρμένοι εἰσί” is the regular form, and not “ἐφθάραται”, which is old-fashioned ( THUC.3.13.3). “ἐκπὲφευγὼς εἴην” is the rule, not “ἐκπεφευγοίην” (SOPH. O. R. 840). “λέλοιπε” becomes in oratio obliquaλελοιπὼς εἴη” (XEN. An. 1.2.21). Still, much depends on the position of the copula, much on the context and on the character of the verbs.

DEM.19.336:τὴν ἄλλως ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἐπαρεῖ τὴν φωνὴν καὶ πεφωνασκηκὼς ἔσται”. [48]DEM., 16:ἔφη εἶναι παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ ὅσον μὴ ἦν ἀνηλωμένον”.

ISOC.12.233:εὐθὺς . . . προειρηκὼς . . . ἦν αὐτοῖς ἐφ᾽ συνεληλυθότες ἦσαν, ἀνέγνωστο δ᾽ λόγος, ἐπῃνημένος δ᾽ ἦν κτἑ”. (236).

PLATO, Conv. 191E:μᾶλλον πρὸς τὰς γυναῖκας τετραμμέναι εἰσί”. Euthyd. 280 C:τέκτων εἰ παρεσκευασμένος εἴη . . . ξύλα ἱκανά, τεκταίνοιτο δὲ μή, ἔσθ᾽ τι ὠφελοῖτ᾽ ἂν ἀπὸ τῆς κτήσεως”; Legg. 814 B:οὕτως αἰσχρῶς τὰς γυναῖκας εἶναι τεθραμμένας”. Rpb. 601 D:πρὸς ἣν ἂν ἔκαστον πεποιημένον πεφυκός”. PLAT. Soph. 218A:πᾶσι κεχαρισμένος” (= adj. gratus) “ἔσει”. (Compare Gorg. 502 B:ἐάν τι αὐτοῖς ἡδὺ . . . καὶ κεχαρισμένον”.)

XEN. Hell. 1.1.11: “πυθόμενος δὲ ὅτι αἱ τῶν Πελοποννησίων νῆες ἐξ Ἀβύδου ἀνηγμέναι εἶεν εἰς Κύζικον . . . ἦλθεν εἰς Σηστόν”.

AR. Pl. 867-8: “πολὺ μᾶλλον ἐνίους ἐστὶν ἐξολωλεκώς”. | KAP. “καὶ τίνα δέδρακε δῆτα τοῦτ”(“ο”); But Av. 655:ἔσεσθον ἐπτερωμένω, ἐπτερωμένω” is almost an adjective and Ran. 433: “ξένω γάρ ἐσμεν ἀρτίως ἀφιγμένω, ἐσμεν” belongs to “ξένω”.

SOPH. Ai. 740:τί δ᾽ ἐστὶ χρείας τῆσδ᾽ ὑπεσπανισμένον” (= “ἐλλιπές”);

HOM. Od. 2.187: “τὸ δὲ καὶ τετελεσμένον ἔσται”, and so 17.229; 18.82; 19.487; Il. 1.212; 2.257; 8.401; 23.672. But Od. 5.89-90: “τελέσαι δέ με θυμὸς ἄνωγεν”, | “εἰ δύναμαι τελέσαι γε καὶ εἰ τετελεσμένον ἐστίν”, where “τετελεσμένον” = “τελεστόν” = “δυνατὸν γενέσθαι” (Paraphrastic), and so Il. 14.195-6; 18.426-7. Od. 8.454: “τὸ δέ κεν τετελεσμένον ἦεν”.

Il. 3.309: “πεπρωμένον ἐστίν”. 5.873: “αἰεί τοι ῥίγιστα θεοὶ τετληότες εἰμέν”.

1 W. J. Alexander, A. J. P. iv (1883), 307-8.

2 M. Beyer, de perfecti apud Herodotum usu syntactico, Vratislaviae, 1868.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: