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42. Plural of abstract substantives used distributively.

In Greek, the plural of abstract substantives is used distributively with far more freedom than in modern English. In Old English compare “Lete us two preue oure strengthes,” Morte d'Arthur, 193.22, and similarly elsewhere.

οὐδ̀ ἀπέβλεψεν” (sc. “ δῆμος”) “εἰς τὰς οὐσίας τὰς τούτων”, DEM.21.2: The commons had no regard to their substance (property). “πολλῶν γὰρ τὰ μέρη τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀποστερεῖ”, 36.36; He deprives his brother of his share(s) in many things.

DEM.21.2(see above). 30.21: “ἀδελφῶν καὶ θυγατέρων βίους ἐγχειρίζομεν, ὑπὲρ ὧν τὰς ἀσφαλείας μάλιστα σκοποῦμεν”. 36.36 (see above).

ISOC.2.46:τὰς ἀληθείας τῶν πραγμάτων”. 3.15: “τὰς ἰσότητας τοῖς μετέχουσι τῶν πολιτειῶν ζητοῦσι”. 3.20: “τὰς εὐνοίας ἔχουσιν”. 4.151: “τὰ . . . σώματα διὰ τοὺς πλούτους τρυφῶντες”. (In Isocrates the plural is so marked a mannerism, and is so often suggested by the avoidance of hiatus, that it is not necessary to insist on sharp distinctions in that author.)

ANT.1.28:οὐ . . . μαρτύρων γ᾽ ἐναντίον οἱ ἐπιβουλεύοντες τοὺς θανάτους τοῖς πέλας μηχανῶνται”.

PLATO, Legg. 625B-C: “κυπαρίττων τε ἐν τοῖς ἄλσεσιν ὕψη καὶ κάλλη”, The height and beauty of the cypresses in the groves. Rpb. 425 A:σιγάς τε τῶν νεωτέρων παρὰ πρεσβυτέροις”, Silence of the juniors in the presence of seniors.

XEN. Cyr. 3.3.19:ῥώμαις” . Hell. 6.1.5:ταῖς ἡλικίαις” .

THUC.7.55.2:πόλεσι . . . καὶ ναῦς καὶ ἵππους καὶ μεγέθη ἐχούσαις”.

HDT.1.202; 2.10:μεγάθεα” . 3.102:μύρμηκες μεγάθεα ἔχοντες κυνῶν μὲν ἐλάσσονα, ἀλωπέκων δὲ μέζονα” . 3.107:μεγάθεα” . 6.58: “τῶν γὰρ ὦν βαρβάρων οἱ πλεῦνες τῷ αὐτῷ νόμῳ χρέωνται κατὰ τοὺς θανάτους τῶν βασιλέων”, At the death of their kings. 7.103: “μεγάθεα”.

AR. Pl.530:ἱματίων βαπτῶν δαπάναις” .

EUR. Phoen. 870:αἵ θ᾽ αἱματωποὶ δεργμάτων διαφθοραί” .

SOPH. O. C. 552:τὰς αἱματηρὰς ὀμμάτων διαφθοράς” . Ph. 304:οὐκ ἐνθάδ᾽ οἱ πλοῖ τοῖσι σώφροσιν βροτῶν” .

AESCHYL. Ag. 404-5: “λιποῦσα δ᾽ ἀστοῖσιν . . . ναυβάτας ὁπλισμούς”.

PIND. O. 4.12: “τροφαῖς ἑτοῖμον ἵππων” (= “ἱπποτροφίαις”). Ibid. 9.19: “στεφάνων ἄωτοι”. Ibid. 12.9: “τῶν . . . μελλόντων . . . φραδαί”. P. 1.4: “προοιμίων ἀμβολάς”. Ibid. 10.72: “πολίων κυβερνάσιες”. I. 3 [4], 48: “τῶν ἀπειράτων γὰρ ἄγνωστοι σιωπαί”.

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