Sometimes there is an ordinary proem, much in the manner of Lysias, explaining the friendship of the speaker for the litigant1
or seeking to prepossess the court against the adversary2
. Sometimes there is no proem, properly so called. Thus the third and ninth speeches open at once with the briefest possible statement of the case,—followed, in IX., by a sketch of what the speaker will go on to prove (πρόθεσις
, § 1),—in III., by a preliminary argument (προκατασκευή
, §§ 1—6). The same sort of preliminary argument forms the opening of Or. v., §§ 1—4; and immediately follows the recitation of laws which introduces Or. XI.3
This bold abruptness is characteristic of Isaeos. The genuine forensic speeches of Demosthenes show not a single instance in which he ventured to dispense with a proem.