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1 Macaulay, observing that the rise of Athenian oratory was contemporaneous with the decline of Athenian character and power, argues that this division of labour was the chief cause. (On the Athenian Orators: Miscellaneous Writings I 137 f.) As regards political oratory, it was certainly one of the chief causes. Macaulay's remark there, as to the silent and rapid downfall of Sparta having been due to the cultivation by others of scientific warfare, had been anticipated. The old advantage of Sparta in war and athletics —then lost—was due, says Aristotle, simply to Sparta studying these while her rivals did not: τῷ μόνον μὴ πρὸς ἀσκοῦντας ἀσκεῖν, Arist. Polit. V (VIII) iv § 4.
2 See Freeman, Historical Essays (Second Series) IV. ‘The Athenian Democracy,’ p. 138.
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