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Lost works.

Besides the extant compositions, twenty-four others, bearing the name of Antiphon, are known by their titles. Among these three deserve especial notice, because their titles have occasioned different inferences as to their contents, and because it is now tolerably certain that they belong, not to Antiphon
Authorship of the treatises On Truth, On Concord, On Statesmanship.
the orator, but to Antiphon the sophist1. These are the ‘speeches’ (or rather essays) On Truth, On Concord, On Statesmanship2. As regards the first of these, indeed, the testimony of Hermogenes3 that it was the work of the Sophist has scarcely been questioned. But the treatise On Concord has often been given to the orator on the assumption that it was a speech, enforcing the importance of harmony, which he delivered in some political crisis, perhaps at the moment when the Four Hundred were threatened with ruin by internal dissensions4. The treatise on Statesmanship, again, might, as far as the title witnesses, have been a practical exposition of oligarchical principles by the eloquent colleague of Peisandros. An examination of the fragments leads, however, to the almost certain conclusion that all these three works must be ascribed to the Sophist. The essay On Truth was a physical treatise, in which cosmic phenomena were explained mechanically in the fashion of the Ionic School5. The essay On Concord was an ethical treatise, exhorting all men to live in harmony and friendship, instead of embittering their short lives by strife6. The essay on Statesmanship was no party-pamphlet, but a discussion of the training required to produce a capable citizen7. Besides the speeches known to the ancients, a work on the Art
The Rhetoric.
of Rhetoric8, and a collection of Proems and Epilogues9, were current under Antiphon's name.
The collectwn of Proems and Epilogues.
Sauppe and Spengel10 believe the Tetralogies to be examples taken from the Rhetoric; the latter, however, is expressly condemned as spurious by Pollux11. The collection of Proems and Epilogues may, as Blass12 suggests, have furnished the opening and concluding passages of the Speech On the Murder of Herodes, and the opening passage of that On the Choreutes. In the latter case the difference of style between the proem and all that follows it is certainly striking.

1 See p. 2, note 3.

2 ἀληθείας λόγοι B:—περὶ ὁμονοίας:—πολιτικός. The fragments are given in Sauppe's Fragm. Oratt. Att. pp. 145 ff. printed in Baiter and Sauppe's Oratores Attici, and in the edition of Antiphon by Blass, pp. 124—143 (Teubner, 1871).

3 Hermog. περὶ ἰδεῶν. II. c. 11. p. 414. There were two Antiphons, he says, ὧν εἷς μέν ἐστιν ῥήτωρ, οὗπερ οἱ φονικοὶ φέρονται λόγοι καὶ δημηγορικοὶ καὶ ὅσοι τούτοις ὅμοιοι. ἕτερος δὲ καὶ τερατοσκόπος καὶ ὀνειροκρίτης λεγόμενος γενέσθαι, οὗπερ οἵ τε περὶ τῆς ἀληθείας λέγονται λόγοι καὶ περὶ ὁμονοίας καὶ οἱ δημηγορικοὶ καὶ πολιτικός. Spengel proposed to detach the words καὶ περὶ ὁμονοίας καὶ οἱ δημηγορικοὶ καὶ πολιτικός from the last clause, and to insert them in the first clause after φέρονται λόγοι, (omitting, of course, the καὶ δημηγ. which already stands there, and the τε in οἵ τε περὶ τῆς ἀληθείας). He would thus make Hermogenes ascribe the περὶ ὁμονοίας and the πολιτικός to Antiphon the orator, and the ἀληθείας λόγοι only to Antiphon the sophist. But this is an arbitrary and violent treatment of the text. Sauppe is no doubt right in thinking that its only corruption is the recurrence of οἱ δημηγορικοί in the second clause. The article had been accidentally left out where the word first occurs, and a corrector wrote οἱ δημηγορικοί at full length in the margin, whence it crept into the text a second time.

4 In reference to the meeting of the Four Hundred on the day after the mutiny of the hoplites in the Peiraeus (Thuc. VIII. 92, 93), Mr Grote says—‘It may probably have been in this meeting of the Four Hundred that Antiphon delivered his oration strongly recommending concord.’ (Hist. Gr. c. 62, vol. VIII. p. 94 n.) ‘In hoc autem libro,’ (says Blass, Antiphon p. 130) ‘sicut fragmenta docent, de moribus sophista disserebat deque vitae brevitate et aerumnis: rempublicam vero civiumque concordiam nusquam attigit.’

5 Protagoras called his Treatise of Natural Philosophy ἀλήθεια, περὶ τοῦ ὄντος. The most suggestive fragment of the ἀληθείας λόγοι is no. 13 in Sauppe's list (fragm. Or. Graec. p. 149). Galen ap. Hippokr. epidem. I. 3. vol. 17, 1. p. 681 (Kühn) says:—οὕτω δὲ καὶ παρ᾽ Ἀντιφῶντι κατὰ τὸ δεύτερον τῆς Ἀληθείας ἔστιν εὑρεῖν γεγραμμένην τὴν προσηγορίαν ἐν τῇδε τῇ ῥήσει: ὅταν οὖν γένωνται ἐν τῷ ἀέρι ὄμβροι τε καὶ πνεύματα ὑπενάντια ἀλλήλοις, τότε συστρέφεται τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ πυκνοῦται κατὰ πολλά, κ.τ. λ.

6 See, for instance, fragments 1 and 4 of the περὶ ὁμονοίας in Sauppe:—ἀναθέσθαι δὲ ὥσπερ πεττὸν τὸν βίον οὐκ ἔστιν...πολλοὶ δ᾽ ἔχοντες φίλους οὐ γιγνώσκουσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἑταίρους ποιοῦνται θῶπας, πλούτου καὶ τύχης κόλακας.

7 For instance, in fragment 2 of the πολιτικός we have a precept on the value of a character for steady business habits—μήτε φιλοπότην κληθῆναι καὶ δοκεῖν τὰ πράγματα καταμελεῖν ὑπ᾽ οἴνου ἡσσώμενον.

8 ῥητορικαὶ τέχναι.

9 προοίμια καὶ ἐπίλογοι.

10 Sauppe, Fragm. Oratt. Gr. p. 145

11 Pollux (VI. 143) quotes a word as used by Antiphon ἐν ταῖς ῥητορικαῖς τέχναις: but adds—δοκοῦσι δ᾽ οὐ γνήσιαι.

12 Attisch. Bereds. p. 103, where he quotes (note 7) Cic. Brut. 47 for the statement of Aristotle—“huic (Gorgiae) Antiphontem Rhamnusium similia quaedam habuisse conscripta:” — where conscripta seems to mean a collection of communes loci stored up to be used as they might be wanted.

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