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Olympiads and ArchonsB.C.Literary eventsPolitical and military events
72. Diognetos492 Fleet of Mardonios destroyed off Athos.
2. Hybrilides491 Persian heralds sent by Dareios to demand earth and water from the Greek cities.
3. Phaenippos490Pindar Πυθ. 7 and (?) 12. Aeschylos fights at Marathon.Persians, under Artaphernes and Datis, invade Greece: Hippias lands with them at Marathon. Athenian victory.
4. Aristides489 Expedition of Miltiades to Paros: his disgrace and death.
73. Anchises488Pheidias born? 
2.487Simonides of Keos flourishes. 
3.486Pindar Πυθ. 3.Death of Dareios: Xerxes king of Persia.
4. Philokrates485Gorgias, Protagoras and Tisias born about this time.Gelon becomes tyrant of Syracuse.
74. Leostratos484Pindar Ὀλυμπ. 10 and 11. Epicharmos writes Comedy at Syracuse. Aeschylos begins to be eminent in Tragedy. Herodotos born. 
2. Nikodemos483 Aristeides ostracised.
4. Themistokles481  
75. Kalliades480Antiphon born. Pindar Ἰσθμ. 7. Euripides born. (Aeschylos was now 45, and Sophokles 15.)Amnesty at Athens before Salamis I. 125. Second Persian invasion. Xerxes crosses Hellespont. Battles of Thermopylae, Artemision and Salamis.
2. Xanthippos479 Athenians reject the offers of Mardonios: he occupies Athens. Battles of Plataea and Mykale. Athenian ἀρχή founded. Athens rebuilt and Peiraeus fortified: Walls of Themistokles.
3. Timosthenes478History of Herodotos ends at siege of Sestos (spring).Hieron succeeds Gelon as tyrant of Syracuse. Korax flourishes in his reign (cf. 466 B.C.). Pausanias recalled from Byzantium to Sparta.
4. Adeimantos477 Formation of Delian Confederacy under headship of Athens: tribute assessed on members by Aristeides. Treason and death of Pausanias.—Kleisthenean constitution begins to be developed through the ναυτικὸς ὄχλος: Fourth Class made eligible for archonship: boards for internal administration multiplied (ἀγοράνομοι, ἀστύνομοι, &c.).
76. Phaedon476Phrynichos tragicus victor with Φοίνισσαι.Athenians take Eion, reconquer Lemnos, reduce Skyros and Karystos.
2. Dromoklei-475  
3. Akestorides474  
4. Menon473  
77. Chares472Pindar Ὀλυμπ. 1 and 12. Death of Pythagoras age 99. Aeschylos Πέρσαι.Thrasydaeos, tyrant of Agrigentum, expelled: Empedokles opposes the restoration of the tyranny, I. cxx.
2. Praxiergos471Thucydides born.Themistokles ostracised.
3. Demotion470  
4. Apsephion469  
78. Theagenides468Pindar Ὀλυμπ. 6. Sophokles gains his first tragic victory, age 28. Sokrates born.Death of Aristeides.
2. Lysistratos467 Thrasybulos succeeds Hieron as tyrant of Syracuse.
3. Lysanias466Korax begins to teach Rhetoric at Syracuse: I. cxxi.—Pindar Πυθ. 4 and 5. Diagoras of Melos flor.Thrasybulos expelled from Syracuse: Gelonian dynasty overthrown and a democracy established. Naxos revolts from Athens and is subjugated.
4. Lysithcos465 Athenian colonists destroyed by Thracians near Ennea Hodoi: II. 189. Thasos revolts from Athens: is reduced 463 B.C. Death of Xerxes: Artaxerxes I. (Μακρόχειρ) king (—425 B.C.).
79. Arclndemides464Pindar Ὀλυμπ. 7 and 13.Helots rise against Spartans (—455 B.C.): quarrel between Athens and Sparta: alliance between Athens and Argos.
2. Tlepolemos463  
3. Konon462  
4. Evippos461 Megara joins Athenian alliance: Long Walls of Megara built.
80. Phrasikleides460Parmenides visits Athens. Zenon of Elea (‘inventor of Dialectic’, Arist.) flor. Hippokrates the physician born. Demokritos born.Kephalos, father of Lysias, invited to settle at Athens by Perikles? I. 142. Revolt of Egypt from Persia (—455 B.C.).
2. Philokles459Lysias born, acc. to [Plut.] and Dionys. (cf. 444 B.C.) I. 143.—Thrasymachos of Chalkedon born?Reforms of Ephialtes II. 208.
3. Bion458Aeschylos Ὀρεστεία.Kimon ostracised?
4. Mnesitheides457 Long Walls of Athens begun. Embitterment of the conservative party: murder of Ephialtes.—Athenians defeated at Tanagra by Lacedaemonians and allies.—Athenians defeat Boeotians at Oenophyta. Athenian empire at its greatest extent
81. Kallias456Pindar Ὀλυμπ. 9. Death of Aeschylos age 69.Kimon recalled from exile. Long Walls of Athens completed.
2. Sosistratos455First tragedy, Πελιάδες, of Euripides, age 36.Destruction of Athenian armament sent to help Inaros II. 189. Persians reduce all Egypt except the fens held by Amyrtaeos.—Ithome surrenders to Sparta (cf. 464 B.C.): Tolmides, στρατηγός, settles expelled Helots at Naupaktos. —Athens conquers Aegina.
3. Ariston454 Death of Alexander I. (φιλέλλην) of Macedon (498 B. C.—): accession of Perdikkas.
4. Lysikrates453  
82. Chaerepha-452Pindar Ὀλυμπ. 4 and 5. 
2. Antidotos451Ion of Chios, tragic poet, begins to exhibit. 
3. Euthydemos450Krates comicus and Bakchylides lyricus flor. Anaxagoras age 50 withdraws from Athens: he had taught Perikles and Euripides.Five Years'Truce between Athens and Sparta I. 130. Athens sends 60 ships to help Amyrtaeos in Egypt.
4. Pedieus449 Siege of Citium in Cyprus by Kimon: cf. II. 189. His death. Athenian victory at the Cyprian Salamis. Alleged treaty (‘of Kalhas’) between Athens and Persia, II. 157 Alkibiades born?
83 Philiskos448Kratinos comicus flor. 
2. Timarchides447 Death of Themistokles.—Athenians under Tolmides defeated by Boeotians at Koroneia. Athemans evacuate Boeotia: their ἀρχή begins to break up.
3. Kallimachos446  
4. Lysimachides445Iktinos and Kallikrates, architects, flor.Euboea and Megara revolt from Athens. Lacedaemonians under Pleistoanax invade Attica. Thirty Years' Truce between Athens and Sparta: Andokides, grandfather of the orator, an envoy, I. 132.
84. Praxiteles444Date for birth of Lysias placed between this year and 436 by C. F. Hermann and Blass, I. 144 (cf. 459 B.C.). Pheidias age 44 has superintendence of the public art-works of Athens.Foundation of Thurii (I. 143), by Athenian colonists, on the site of Sybaris.
2. Lysanias443Death of Pindar age 79. Herodotus age 43 goes to Thurii: Lysias either now or later.Thucydides, son of Melesias, ostracised: aristocratic party broken up.
3. Diphilos442Euripides age 49 gains, for the first time, the first prize in tragedy. 
4. Timokles441  
85. Myrochides440Andokides born, I. 71. Decree to put down Comedy (ψήφισμα τοῦ μὴ κωμωδεῖν). Sophokles Ἀντιγόνη (in the year of his στρατηγία).Revolt of Samos from Athens: Andokides avus and Sophokles command with Perikles against Samos, I. 72. Samos surrenders in 9th month. Appeal of Samians to Lacedaemonians: congress at Sparta: Corinthians insist on the principle of non-interference with an autonomous city.
2. Glaukines439  
3. Theodoros438Parthenon completed and dedicated: Pheidias age 50. — Euripides Ἄλκηστις.—Kalamis, sculptor, flor. 
4. Euthymenes437Pheidias goes to Elis. Decree against Comedy repealed. 
86. Lysimachos436Isokrates born. II. 2. The Zeus at Olympia completed by Pheidias. Propylaea of Athens begun.The people of Epidamnos apply to their metropolis Corcyra: help is refused, and they apply to Corinth.
2. Antilochides435Phrynichos comicus begins to write. Polygnotos, painter, flor.Corinthian army admitted into Epidamnos: sea-fight between Corinthians and Corcyraeans: Epidamnos capitulates to Corcyraeans.
3. Chares434 Embassies to Athens from
4. Apseudes433 Corcyra and from Corinth: Athens makes a defensive alliance with Corcyra: 10 Athenian ships sent to Corcyra under Lakedaemonios son of Kimon.
87. Pythodoros432Pheidias and Aspasia prosecuted ἀσεβείας: Pheidias dies in prison— Anaxagoras also persecuted: he withdraws to Lampsakos.Corcyraeans, supported by Athenians, defeated in a sea-fight by Corinthians (spring).— Athenians blockade Pydna and Potidaea.—Congress at Sparta (autumn): a large majority of the allies vote for war with Athens.
2. Euthydemos431Perikles speaks the ἐπιτά- φιος of those who had fallen in the first year of the war. Euripides Μήδεια. Xenophon born.Peloponnesian demands rejected by Athens.—Beginning of Peloponnesian War.—Theban attempt on Plataea.—First invasion of Attica under Archidamos.—Brasidas, now first heard of, rescues Methone from Athenians.
3. Apollodoros430Polykleitos, sculptor, flor.Year 2 of War.—Second invasion of Attica.—Plague at Athens.—Perikles unpopular: he is fined, but re-elected strategos.
4. Epameinon429Damon, musician, flor. II. 145. Plato born (May).—Death of Perikles (autumn). Eupolis writes Comedy.Year 3 of War.—Potidaea surrenders on conditions (cf. 332 B.C.)—Phormion, commanding Athenian fleet, gains two victories in Corinthian gulf.
88. Diotimos428 Year 4 of War.—Lesbos, except Methymna, revolts: Athenians besiege Mytilene. —Third invasion of Attica, led by Kleomenes.
2. Eukleides427Gorgias visits Athens as chief envoy of Leontini, I. CXXV. Tisias accompanies him, acc. to Paus. Aristophanes begins to satirize the New Culture in his Δαιταλεῖς—a contrast between the old school and the new.Year 5 of War.mdash;Plataea destroyed by Sparta, II. 176.— Fourth invasion of Attica, led by Kleomenes.—Mytilene taken by Athenians, I. 56: massacre proposed by Kleon and averted by Diodotos.— Strife at Corcyra between oligarchs and demos (summer). Athens sends help to Leontini.
3. Euthynos426Aristophanes Βαβυλώνιοι— a plea for the allies against Kleon, &c.Year 6 of War.mdash;Athenians purity Delos and restore the Panionic festival, to be held there every 4 years.
4. Stratokles425Aristophanes Ἀχαρνεῖς. Zeuxis, painter, flor.Year 7 of War.mdash;Corcyraean demos, helped by Eurymedon and Athenians, storm Istone: massacre of oligarchs.—Fifth invasion of Attica led by Agis II. — Demosthenes occupies Pylos. Spartan hoplites blockaded in Sphakteria: Kleon takes the island, and brings Spartan prisoners to Athens. —Death of Artaxerxes I. (465 B.C.—See next year.)
89. Isarchos424Aristophanes Ἱππεῖς.Year 8 of War.mdash;Defeat of Athenians by Thebans at Delium.—Brasidas in Thrace: he gains Akanthos, Amphipolis, Stageiros, Torone.— Congress of Sicilian Greeks at Gela: Hermokrates denounces Atheman aggression. Accession of Dareios II. (Νόθος—405 B.C.) after a contest.
2. Ameinias423Thucydides, the historian, is banished, or withdraws from Athens, in consequence of his failure to save Amphipolis (January?). Returns to Athens in 403. Aristophanes Νεφέλαι (1st edit.).Year 9 of War.mdash;Brasidas in Thrace: Skione and Mende revolt from Athens.—Truce for a year.
3. Alkaeos422Aristophanes Σφῆκες.Year 10 of War.mdash;Torone recovered by Kleon. Battle of Amphipolis: Kleon and Brasidas killed.—Number of Athenian males above the age of 20 was at this time about 20,000: total civic population (excluding μέτοικοι and slaves) about 82,000: average attendance in Ekklesia, about 5000.
4. Aristion421Eupolis in his Κόλαλες brings in Protagoras as then hving at AthensYear 11 of War.mdash;Peace ‘of Nikias,’ for 50 years, nominally valid down to 414, but not accepted by Boeotians, Corinthians or Megarians.
90. Astyphilos420Isaeos born II. 262. Plato comicus flor.Year 12 of War.mdash;Separate treaty of Sparta with (1) Boeotians, (2) Aigives.—Alkibiades contrives to alienate the Argives from Sparta: defensive alliance between Athens, Argos, Elis and Mantineia.
2. Archias419 Year 13 of War.mdash;Alkibiades στρατηγός: he makes a progress through Achaia.—Invasion of Epidauros by Argives. Year 14 of War.mdash;Spartans in-
3. Antiphon418 vade Argos. Argives, with Alkibiades, attack Orchomenos: Spartans come to the defence of Tegea. Battle of Mantineia (cf. 362 B C.): Complete victory of Spartans over Argives and Athenians. Oligarchical conspiracy of the Thousand at Argos.
4. Euphemos417Antiphon or. 5 περὶ τοῦ Ἡρώδου φόνου, I. 59Year 15 of War.mdash;Rising of Argive demos against oligarchs. —Athenian expedition to get back Amphipolis: Perdikkas of Macedon breaks faith, and the plan fails.—Ostracism of Hyperbolos, I. 134—the tenth, and last, recorded exercise of ostracism since its institution by Kleisthenes about 509 B.C. (Cf. I. 137.)
91. Arimnestos416Agathon tragicus flor.Year 16 of War.mdash;Athenians take Melos, II. 156. Victories of Alkibiades at Olympia? II. 227.—Embassy to Athens from Egesta, asking help against Selinus. Athenian envoys sent to Egesta.
2. Chabrias415Andokides banished, under the decree of Isotimides, I. 75. Fictitious date of [Andok.] or. 4 κατὰ Ἀλκιβιάδου, I. 134. Sokrates flor., age 53: Plato is now 14: Alkibiades circ. 34, Xenophon circ. 16.— Euripides Τρωάδες.Year 17 of War.mdash;Envoys return from Egesta: Sicilian Expedition voted.—Mutilation of the Hermae, just as fleet is going to sail for Sicily (May), I. 73—(Athenian ambitions in 415: II. 188.) — Alkibiades accused of profaning Mysteries.—Expedition sails for Sicily under Nikias, Lamachos and Alkibiades.—Excitement caused at Athens by disclosures of Diokleides and Andokides. Alkibiades condemned to death in his absence.—Nikias misses his chance of investing Syracuse.
3. Peisandros414Aristophanes Ὄρνιθες.Year 18 of War.—Second campaign in Sicily. Lamachos killed. Gylippos enters Syracuse. Nikias writes to Athens for help.
4. Kleokritos413 Year 19 of War.mdash;Dekeleia in Attica fortified by Lacedaemonians, II. 188, who ravage Attica. Formal end to the truce of 421. Beginning of the second chapter of the War, called the Δεκελεικὸς or Ἰώνιος πόλεμος (—404 B.C.)— Third campaign in Sicily. Sea-fight at Syracuse: Athenian fleet destroyed. Death of Nikias and of Demosthenes. Death of Perdikkas, King of Macedon (454 B.C.—); accession of Archelaos (—399 B.C.).
92. Kallias412Antiphon or. 6 περὶ τοῦ χορευτοῦ? I. 63 —Lysias and his brother Polemarchos driven from Thurii, come to Athens.— Euripides Ἑλένη, Ἀνδρομέδα. Kallimachos, sculptor, flor.Year 20 of War.mdash;Revolt of Lesbos from Athens, I. 58. Revolt of Euboea, II. 263. Revolt of Chios, II. 160. Pedaritos commands there for Sparta, II. 198. Revolt of Miletos. Oropos seized by Boeotians, II. 179. Athenians lose a sea-fight off Knidos, II. 351.—Samian demos, true to Athens, rises against the oligarchs. Athenian fleet musters at Samos: Spartan Astyochos defeats Charmînos. Alkibiades takes refuge from Spartans with Tissaphernes: his overtures to the Athenian leaders.
2. Theopompos411First return of Andokides to Athens, I. 79. Antiphon dies, I. 13. Xenophon begins his Ἑλληνικά with the manœuvres at the Hellespont just after the battle of Kynossema: cf. 362 B.C. Aristophanes Λυσιστράτη, Θεσμοφοριάζουσαι.Year 21 of War.mdash;Government of the Four Hundred, I. 7: (March —June.)—Eratosthenes (Lys. or. 12) active at the Hellespont for the oligarchs: I. 266.—Athenian victory at Kynossema.—Evagoras begins to reign? II. 110.
3. Glaukippos410Second return of Andokides to Athens: or. 2. περὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ καθόδου, I. 109.—Dramatic date of Plato Φαῖδρος? II. 3.— History of Thucydides breaks off after the battle of Kyzikos.Year 22 of War.mdash;Thrasyllos commands on coast of Asia Minor, I. 297.—Second form of the Trierarchy brought in — συντριηραρχία: cf. 357, 340 B.C. — Athenians attack and recover Kyzikos: death of Spartan admiral Mindaros. — Kleophon δημαγωγός: Athens rejects Spartan offers of peace.
4. Diokles409Sophokles Φιλοκτήτης.Year 23 of War.mdash;Athenian campaign under Thrasyllos in Lydia. — Messenians in Pylos surrender to Sparta.— Megara recovers Nisaea.
93. Euktemon408Euripides Ὀρέστης. Aristophanes Πλοῦτος (1st edit.: cf. 388 B.C.).Year 24 of War.mdash;Alkibiades recovers Selymbria and Byzantium for Athens.—Troops under Thrasyllos defeated at Ephesos, I. 297.
2. Antigenes407Lysias or. 20 ὑπὲρ Πολυστράτου? I. 217.Year 25 of War.mdash;Alkibiades returns to Athens, is chosen στρατηγός and leads the procession to Eleusis.—Antiochos, the pilot of Alkibiades, defeated by Lysander off Notion, Alkibiades plunders Kyme. He is deposed from his στρατηγία: ten new Generals are chosen.
3. Kallias406Death of Euripides.Year 26 of War.mdash;Dionysios I. becomes tyrant of Syracuse, II. 171.—Kallikratidas (successor of Lysander) storms Methymna and blockades Konon in Mytilene. Complete victory of Athenians at Arginusae: death of Kallikratidas.—Theramenes accuses the Generals: six are put to death, Sokrates protesting.
4. Alexias405Death of Sophokles. Aristophanes Βάτραχοι. Dramatic date of Plato Γοργίας.Year 27 of War.mdash;Battle of Aegospotami (late autumn). The Areiopagostakes measures for public safety, II. 212. Konon escapes to Evagoras. Death of Dareios II. (424 B.C.—): Artaxerxes II. (Μνή- μων—359 B. C.) succeeds him.
94. Pythodorus404Polemarchos, brother of Lysias, put to death by the Thirty (May); Lysias escapes to Megara, I. 148: cf. 265.—Isokrates leaves Athens for Chios, II. 6.Theramenes brings the terms of peace from Sparta. Agoratos informs, I. 269. Athens surrenders to Lysander. Kritias and Eratosthenes are among the five ἔφοροι, and then among the XXX., I. 266. Tyranny of the Thirty begins (April). Thrasybulos advances from Phyle to Peiraeus. The Thirty deposed in 8th month (Dec.). Theramenes put to death in autumn, II. 6.— Death of Alkibiades, age about 45.
2. Eukleides403Proposal to give Lysias the citizenship defeated by Aichinos, I. 151. Lysias or. 12 κατὰ Ἐρατοσθέ- νους, I 261.—Lysias or, 34 περὶ τοῦ μὴ καταλῦσαι τὴν πσλιτείαν, I. 211. Isokrates returns to Athens, II. 6 Isokrates or. 21 πρὸς Εὐθύνουν, II. 219.Thrasybulos and the exiles in the Peiraeus are at war with the Ten; but are in possession of Athens before the end of July —Democracy formally restored in September.—Law of Aristophon, II. 328 — Knights who had served under the Thirty are required to refund their κατάστασις, I. 246.—Expedition from Athens to Eleusis, to dislodge the Thirty, I. 252.
3. Mikon402Third and final return of Andokides to Athens. Lysias or. 21 δωροδοκίας ἀπολογία, I. 219. Lysias or. 24 ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου? I. 255. Isokrates or. 18 πρὸς Καλλίμαχον, II. 232. 
4. Xenaenetos401Lysias or. 25 δήμου καταλύσεως ἀπολογία, I. 250. Sophokles Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ: brought out by Sophokles nepos.Expedition of Cyrus the younger, II. 161, 173. Battle of Kunaxa and death of Cyrus (autumn).—Retreat of the Greeks: they reach Armenia in the winter.— War between Lacedaemon and Elis.
95. Laches400Parrhasios, painter, flor.Campaign of Thimbron in Asia Minor, II. 161. The Greeks in their retreat reach Kotyora on the Euxine 8 months after battle of Kunaxa.
2. Aristokrates399Andokides or. 1 περὶ τῶν μυστηρίων, I. 114.—Death of Sokrates, I. 153.—Lysias or. 30 κατὰ Νικομάχου, I. 224.—[Lys.] or. 6 κατὰ Ἀνδοκίδου, I. 281.—Plato withdraws to Megara.—Lys. or. 13 κατὰ Ἀγοράτου, I. 269.Proceedings before the Areiopagos against men formerly of the XXX., I 296. Derkyllidas supersedes Thimbron in Asia Minor, II. 161.— Death of Archelaos of Macedon (413 B. C.—); his son Orestes succeeds, but is dispossessed (396 B. C.) by his guardian Aeropos. See 394.
3. Ithykles398Ktesias brought his Περσικά to this year.Second campaign of Derkyllidas in Asia Minor.
4. Suniades397Lysias or. 17 περὶ δημοσίων χρημάτων [better περὶ τῶν Ἐράτωνοσχρημάτων] I. 300 Isokrates or. 17 περὶ τοῦ ζεύγους, II. 228.Third campaign of Derkyllidas in Asia Minor: he is about to invade Karia when he meets the satraps and makes an armistice with Tissaphernes.
96. Phormion396 Beginning of περὶ Ρ̓όδον πόλεμος between Persia and Sparta (—394 B. C.), II. 160. First campaign of Agesilaos in Asia Minor, II. 161.
2. Diophantos395Lysias or. 18 περὶ δημεύ- σεως τῶν τοῦ Νικίου ἀδελφοῦ, I. 229. Plato age 34 returns to Athens. His Γοργίας written between this year and 389. Lysias or. 7 περὶ τοῦ σηκοῦ? I. 289.Athenian expedition to relieve Haliartos, I. 247. Alkibiades the younger takes part, I. 257, and Lysander is killed.—Second campaign of Agesilaos.
3. Eubulides394[Lysias] or. 9 ὑπὲρ τοῦ στρατιωτοῦ, I. 232. Isokrates or. 20 κατὰ Λοχί- του, II. 215.—(or. 393) or. 19 Ἀιγινητικός, II. 217 or. 17 Τραπεζιτικός, II. 222.Beginning of Corinthian War (—390 B. C.), II. 161. Naval campaigns of Konon (Lys. or. 19), I. 235.—Battle of Corinth. Agesilaos in Boeotia (autumn), I. 247. Battle of Knidos, II. 160. — Dionysios I. hard pressed by Carthaginians, II. 198. — Amyntas II of Macedon begins to reign, II. 158.
4. Demostratos393Lysias or. 3 κατὰ Σίμωνος, I. 277. Polykrates κατηγορία Σωκρατους, II. 94. (—391) Isaeos the pupil of Isokrates, II. 264.Long Walls of Athens restored by Konon, I. 83. Lechaeum, western port of Corinth, taken by Lacedaemomans, II. 352.
97. Philokles392Lysias or. 16 ὑπὲρ Μαντιθέου? I. 245. Isokrates begins to teach. First period of his School, 392—378 B. C.: II. 10.— Aristophanes Ἐκκλησιά- ζουσαι. 
2. Nikoteles391(—390 B. C.) Isokrates or. 11 Βούσιρις, II. 93: or. 13 κατὰ σοφιστῶν, II. 127.Plenipotentiaries sent by Athens to treat for peace at Sparta, I. 83 (winter 391—390).
3. Demostiatos390Andokides or. 1 περὶ τῆς πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους εἰρήνης (spring), I. 128.—Isokrates visits Gorgias in Thessaly, II. 5. Isaeos or. 5 περὶ τοῦ Δικαιογένους κλήρου, II. 348. Skopas, sculptor, and Theopompos, last poet of Old Comedy, flor.Thrasybulos the Steirian receives Amadokos I. and Seuthes into the alliance of Athens, II. 168: descends the coast of Asia Minor, II. 346.
4. Antipatros389Lysias or. 28 κατὰ Ἐργοκλέους, I. 221. Lysias or. 27 κατὰ Ἐπικράτους? I. 222. Lysias or. 29 κατὰ Φιλοκρά- τους, I 240. Aeschines born. Plato age 40 first visits Sicily. His Πολιτεία was begun before this year.Death of Thrasybulos the Steirian, I. 246. Atheman expedition to aid Evagoras, I. 236.—Conquests of Dionysios I. in Sicily and Magna Graecia, II. 163 (389—387 B. C.).
98. Pyrrhion388Lysias or. 33 Ὀλυμπιακός, I. 204. Aristophanes Πλοῦτος—second (the extant) edition, marking the transition to Middle Comedy; cf. 408 B. C. Polykrates eminent as a teacher of Rhetoric, II. 95.388—387 B.C., Diotimos commands in Hellespont, I. 237. Dionysios I. of Syracuse sends an embassy to Olympia. I, 155.
2. Theodotos387Lysias or. 19 περὶτῶν Ἀριστοφάνους χρημάτων, I. 235.Eight triremes under Thrasybulos the Kollytean taken by Antalkidas, near Abydos, I. 243.—Peace of Antalkidas, II. 151
3 Mystichides386Lysias or. 22 κατὰ τῶν σιτοπωλῶν? I. 227. Plato age 43 begins to teach in the Academy?Plataea rebuilt by Sparta as a stronghold against Thebes, II 176.
4. Dexitheos385 Mantinera destroyed by Lacedaemonians, II. 152.—Beginning of war between Evagoras and Artaxerxes II., II. 158.
99. Diotiephes384(—383 B.C.) Lys. or. 10 κατὰ Θεομνήστου, I. 293. Demosthenes born (Schä- fer). Aristotle born: Plato age 45. 
2. Phanostratos383 Olynthos besieged by Lacedaemonians, II. 150.—Beginning of Olynthian War (— 379), II. 158. Kotys becomes King of Thracian Odrysae. Iphikrates goes against him with Athenian force: then makes peace with him, II. 337.
3. Evandros382Lysias or. 26 κατὰ Ἐυάνδρου, I, 242.The Kadmeia seized by Lacedaemonians, II. 152 —Philip of Macedon, son of Amyntas II., born: cf. 359 B.C.
4. Demophilos381(—380 B. C.) Lysias frag. CXX. f. (Sauppe) ὑπὲρ Φερενίκου, I. 312. 
100. Pytheas380Lysias (I 155).Phlius besieged by Lacedaemonians, II. 150.
2. Nikon379Gorgias and Aristophanes die about this time.End of Olynthian War, II. 158.
3. Nausinikos378(—376 B.C.) Isokrates companion and secretary of Timotheos, II. 10. These orators flourish;— Kallistratos, Leodamas, Thrasybulos and Kephalos of Kollytos, II. 372.Athens at the head of a new Naval Confederacy, II. 10.— Financial reform: establishment of the 20 συμμορίαι for payment of war-tax, II. 30. Θηβαικὸς πόλεμος (II. 331) begins (—371 B. C.). Invasions of Boeotia by Agesilaos and Kleombrotos, II. 176.
4. Kallias377(—371 B.C.) Isaeos or. 10 περὶ τοῦ Ἀριστάρχου κλήρου, II. 333.Agesilaos invades Boeotia. — Thebes begins to reorganise the Boeotian Confederacy, II. 178.
101. Charisandros376—351, Second period of the school of Isokrates, II. 10. Death of Antisthenes, II. 103.End of war (385—) between Evagoias and Aitaxerxes II., II. 158. Kleombrotos invades Boeotia.
2. Hippodamos375Isaeos or. 8 περὶ τοῦ Κίρωνος κλήρου? II. 327. Araros (son of Aristophanes) and Eubulos, earliest poets of Middle Comedy.Timotheos sails round Peloponnesos: Corcyra and other cities of the Ionian Sea join the Atheman League.
3. Sokratides374Isokrates or. 2 πρὸς Νικοκλέα, II. 87.—370 B. C., Jason of Pherae tagos of Thessaly, II. 18. Death of Evagoras king of the Cyprian Salamis, II. 107. Congress at Sparta. Peace between Athens and Sparta, II. 178: Thebes excluded from it, ib. 181.
4. Asteios373Isokrates or. 14 Πλαταικός, II. 176.Plataea destroyed. Walls of Thespiae razed by Thebans, II. 177—9. At this time Oropos belonged to Athens, ib.: cf. 412 B. C.—Timotheos deposed from his στρατηγία and accused by Iphikrates and Kallistratos. — Iphikrates, Chabrias, Kallistratos chosen Generals.
102. Alkisthenes372Isokrates or. 1 πρὸς Δημόνικον? II. 84: or. 3 Νικοκλῆς Κύπριοι, II. 90. 
2. Phrasikleides371 Battle of Leuktra, July 6, II. 196. General Peace (excluding the Thebans) concluded at Sparta (‘Peace of Kallias’), June 16, II. 141.—Jason of Pherae enters Greece as mediator.
3. Dysniketos370Isokrates or. 10 Ἑλένης ἐγκώμιον, II. 100.Jason assassinated, II. 18. First march of Epameinondas into Peloponnesos: invasion of Laconia: foundation of Megalopolis and of the new Messene, II. 194.
4. Lysistratos369Isaeos or. 9 περὶ τοῦ Ἀστυφίλου κλήρου, II. 330.Second march of Epameinondas into Peloponnesos. First expedition sent by Dionysios I. of Syracuse to help the Corinthians and Spartans: Athens also forms friendly relations with him.—Death of Amyntas II. of Macedon: accession of his eldest son Alexander II. (brother of Philip).
103. Nausigenes368Isokrates Epist. I Διονύσῳ, II. 238.Second expedition sent by Dionysios I. Pelopidas imprisoned by Alexander of Pherae: released by Epameinondas.—Philip (age 14) sent by Ptolemaeos as a hostage to Thebes: lives there till 365 B. C. — Alexander II. of Macedon put to death by usurper Ptolemaeos (—365 B. C.).
2. Polyzelos367Dionysios I. gains tragic prize with Λύτρα Ἕκτορος. Plato age 62 visits Sicily for second time. Aristotle age 17 comes to Athens, where he lives till Plato's death in 347.Death of Dionysios I. of Syracuse, II. 19. His son Dionysios II. succeeds him. Third march of Epameinondas into Peloponnesos.—Timotheos again in command of Athenian fleet.
3. Kephisodoros366Isokrates or. 6 Ἀρχίδαμος, II. 193. Demosthenes comes of age: his studies with Isaeos probably begin, II. 267.Sparta refuses to recognise Messene. Corinth, Epidauros and Phlius make peace for themselves with Thebes, II. 193. Oropos revolts from Athens and is occupied by the Thebans.
4. Chion365Isokrates or. 9 Ἐυαγόρας? II. 106.Kallistratos and Chabrias impeached for the Oropos affair by Leodamas, Philostratos Κολωνέυς, and (?) Hegesippos:—acquitted. Timotheos reduces Samos (where κληροῦχοι are established), Sestos and Krithote. —Perdikkas III. (second son of Amyntas II. and brother of Philip) King of Macedon (—359 B. C.).
104. Timokrates364(—363 B.C) Isaeos or. 6 περὶ τοῦ Φιλοκτήμονος κλήρου, II. 343.Timotheos succeeds to the command of Iphikrates in Thrace: takes Methone, Pidna, Potidaea, Torone. Expedition of Pelopidas into Thessaly: his death.
2. Charikleides363Demosthenes or. 27 κατὰ Ἀφόβου ά, or. 28 κατὰ Ἀφόβου β́, II 301.Campaign of Timotheus against Kotys and Byzantines: his return to Athens.
3. Molon362Demosthenes or. 30 πρὸς Ὀνήτορα ά, or. 31 πρὸς Ὀνήτορα β́, II. 301. Plato's third visit to Sicily. Xenophon closes his Ἑλληνικά (411 B. C.—) at the battle of Mantineia.Fourth and last march of Epameinondas into Peloponnesos. Battle of Mantineia (July 3); death of Epameinondas. General peace, excluding Sparta.—Autokles Athenian commander at the Hellespont.
4. Nikophemos361Demosthenes or. 41 πρὸς Σπουδίαν, or. 55 πρὸς Καλλικλέα, II. 301. Deinarchos born.Archidamos III. succeeds his father Agesilaos as a king of Sparta, II. 19.—Kallistratos flies from Athens to Thasos: Thasians recolonise Datos, II. 185. Aristophon δημαγωγός.
105. Kallimedes360(—353 B. C.) Isaeos or. 1 περὶ τοῦ Κλεωνόμου κλήρου, II. 319. Hypereides κατ᾽ Αὐτοκλέους, II. 381. Praxiteles, sculptor, flor.War between Artaxerxes II. and his satrap Orontes: Athens supports the latter II. 185.
2. Eucharistos359Isaeos or. 11 περὶ τοῦ Ἁγνίου κλήρου, II. 354. Demosthenes trierarch. Isokrates Epist. VI τοῖς Ἰά- σονος παισίν, II. 241.Death of Aitaxerxes II. (Μνή- μων, 405 B. C.—) Accession of Artaxerxes III. (Ὦχος—337 B. C.).—Perdikkas III. of Macedon killed in battle with Illyrians: contest for throne: accession of Philip (—336 B.C.). —Alexander of Pherae murdered by his wife Thebe's halfbrothers, Tisiphonos, Peitholaos and Lykophron, II. 241. Kotys, king of Thracian Odrysae, murdered: his son Kersobleptes prevails, in a contest for the succession, over Berisades and Amadokos II., II. 185.
3. Kephisodo-358  
4. Agathokles357 Chios, Kos, Rhodes, Byzantium revolt from Athens. Social War begins (—355 B. C.), II. 183. Philip takes Amphipolis, II. 185. Treaty between Chares and Kersobleptes: Thracian Chersonese (except Kardia) ceded to Athens, ib. Third form of the Trierarchy brought in by the συμμορίαι of Periandros: cf. 410 B.C.
106. Elpines356Isaeos frag. XVI (Sauppe) ὐπὲρ Εὐμάθους, II. 367. Demosthenes or. 54 κατὰ Κόνωνος? II. 300. Isokrates Epist. IX Ἀρχιδάμῳ, II. 243. Alexis writes Comedy.Philip victor at Olympia: takes and destroys Potidaea: founds Philippi. Alexander the Great born. Chares deteats a Persian force, II. 206.
2. Kallistratos355Isokrates or. 8 περὶ τῆς εἰρή- νης (or συμμαχικὀς): or. 7 Ἁρεοπαγιτικός, II. 202. Demosthenes or. 22 κατὰ Ἀνδροτίωνος, II. 301. Aristotle may have taught Rhetoric as early as this year.Social War ends (midsummer), II. 183.—Phocian (or Sacred) War begins (— 346 B. C.).— Oligarchies set up at Corcyra, Chios, Mytilene, &c., II. 248.
3. Diotimos354Death of Xenophon? Isaeos or. 2 περὶ τοῦ Μενεκλέους κλήρου, II. 336. Dem. or. 14 περὶ τῶν συμμοριῶν, II. 301, 373, or. 20 πρὸς Λεπτίνην, II. 301.Eubulos becomes financial mimster of Athens (ταμιας τῆς κοινῆς προσόδου), II. 27: cf. 338 B.C.—Timotheos brought to trial: dies at Chalkis.— Kallistratos returns to Athens (cf. 361 B. C.):—his death, II. 186.—The Generals Ipikrates, Menestheus and Timotheos arraigned by Aristophon and Chares.
4. Eudemos353Isokrates or. 15 περὶ τῆς ἀντιδόσεως, II. 134. Isaeos or. 7 περὶ τοῦ Ἀπολλοδώρου κλήρου, II. 324.Philip marches along the Thracian coasts, and takes Abdera and Maroneia.—Philip takes Methone: is defeated in Thessaly by Onomarchos.
107. Aristodemos352Demosthenes or. 16 ὑπὲρ Μεγαπολιτῶν, or. 24 κατὰ Τιμοκρατους, or. 23 κατὰ Ἀριστοκράτους, or. 36 ὑπὲρ Φορμίωνος, II. 300. Theodektes tragicus flor. Theopompos, historian, flor.Philip re-enteis Thessaly: defeats Phocians under Onomarchos (who is killed), and advances to Thermopylae: finds it held by Athenians, and retires. He marches to Heraeon on Propontis: dictates peace to Kersobleptes, makes alliance with Kaidia, Perinthos and Byzantium,— He frees Pherae from the Tyranny, II. 241.
2. Thessalos351Demosthenes or. 4 κατὰ Φιλίππου ά, II. 301: or. 15 ὑπὲρ τῆς Ῥοδίων ἐλευθερίας.Death of Mausolos. Artemisia proposes a contest of oratory; Theopompos the historian gains the prize, II. 11. Idrieus, brother of Mausolos, succeeds Artemisia as dynast of Kaiia, II. 173.—Philip marches against the Molossian Arybbas.
3. Apollodoros350(—338.) Third period of the school of Isokiates, II. 10. Demosthenes or. 39 πρὸς Βοιωτὸν περὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος, II. 300. Isokrates Epist. IX τοῖς Μυτιληναίων ἄρχουσιν, II. 248. Death of Isaeos? II. 269.Euboeans ally themselves with Athens. Phokion leads Athenians to support Plutarchos of Eretria: battle of Tamynae.—Apollodoros tried and condemned for proposing to apply the θεωρικὸν to the war. —First help sent by Athens to Olynthos.
4. Kallimachos349Demosthenes or. 26 κατὰ Μειδιου, or. 1 Ὀλυνθιακὸς ά, or. 2 Ὀλυνθιακὸς β́.Philip makes war on Olynthos and the Chalkidic towns. Alliance between Olynthians and Athens.—Second Athenian expedition, under Chares, to help them.
108. Theophilos348Demosthenes or. 3 Ὀλυνθιακὸς γ́.Philip besieges Olynthos—third Athenian expedition, under Chares, to help it—Philip takes Olynthos: destroys it and the 32 Chalkidic towns of its Confederacy.
2. Themistokles347[Dem.] or. 40 πρὸς Βοιωτὸν περὶ προικός. Death of Plato age 82. Aristotle leaves Athens and goes to Hermeias of Atarneus.Philip renews war with Kersobleptes (cf. 352)—which he ends in 346 by dictating a peace. Athenian troops under Chares sent to Thrace.— Mytilene returns into alliance with Athens.
3. Archias346Isokrates or. 5 Φίλιππος (April), II. 167. Demosthenes or. 5 περὶ εἰ- ρήνης (August).Envoys (Philokrates, Aeschines, Demosthenes, &c.) sent by Athens to Philip. — Philip goes to Thracian War.—Antipater and Parmenion negociate with Athenian envoys, —Peace ‘of Philokrates’ ratified on part of Athens and allies (April).—Second Athenian embassy to await Philip at Pella: he returns and takes the envoys to Pherae: ratifies peace there (end of June) —Philip occupies Phocis: end of Phocian War. Philip becomes a member of Amphictyonic Council, and thereby a Greek Power.
4. Eubulos345Demosthenes or. 37 πρὸς Πανταίνετον, or. 38 πρὸς Ναυσίμαχον, II. 300. Aeschines or. 1 κατὰ Τιμάρχου. Isokrates Epist. VII. Τιμοθέῳ, II. 246. The Δηλιακός of Hypereides (cf. II. 385 n.) earther than 344: Sauppe II. 285 f.Philip marches against Illyrii, Dardani, Triballi.—Timoleon of Corinth goes against Dionysios II. of Syracuse.
109 Lykiskos344Demosthenes or 6 κατὰ Φιλίππου β́. Aristotle removes from Ataineus to Mytilene. Ephoros, historian, flor.Timoleon frees Sicily —Philip begins to meddle in Peloponnesos. Demosthenes goes thither to counteract him. Embassy, in remonstrance, from Philip, Argos and Messene to Athens.
2. Pythodotos343Demosthenes or. 19, and Aeschines or 2, περὶ τῆς παραπρεσβείας Antiphanes still writing Comedy.Philokrates is accused by Hypereides, goes into exile.— Aeschines is accused by Demosthenes of malversation in the embassy (346 B. C.), but is acquitted.
3. Sosigenes342Hegesippos ([Dem.] or. 7) περὶ Ἁλοννήσου. Isokrates Epist. II. Φιλίππῳ ά, II. 250: Epist. v. Ἀλεξάνδρῳ, II. 252 Aristotle begins to teach Alexander. Menander born.Philip sets up tetrarchies in Thessaly. — His letter to Athens about Halonnesos.— Alliance between Euboean Chalkis and Athens—(*) nning of Philip's Third lnracian War (—339 B. C) cf. 352, 347 B. C.
4. Nikomachos341Demosthenes or 8 περὶ τῶν ἐν χερσοννήσῳ, or. 9 κατὰ Φιλίππου γ́. Aphareus tragicus flor. down to this time.Feud between Kardia and Attic kleruchi of Chersonese.— Philip supports Kardia Diopeithes, Athenian General, ravages Thracian seaboard. Letter of Philip to Athens about the Chersonese.—Philip approaches Perinthos.—Demosthenes envoy to Byzantium: its alliance with Athens.
110. Theophrastos340Isokrates Epist. IV. Ἀντιπάτρῳ, II. 253. Anaximenes Ῥητορικὴ [πρὸς Ἀλέξανδρον]?Philip besieges Perinthos and Byzantium:—Athenians under Chares support Byzantines.—Philip's ultimatum: Athens, on proposal of Demosthenes, declares war.— Fourth form of the Trierarchy brought in by law of Demosthenes, equalising the burden on taxable capital: cf. 410, 357 B. C.
2 Lysimachides339Isokrates or. 12 Παναθηναικός, II. 113. Xenokiates begins to teach in the Academy.Aeschines and Meidias go as πυλαγόραι to Amphictyonic Council. Amphictyons make war on Lokrians of Amphissa.—Second Athenian force sent to help Byzantium. Philip raises the siege.—Amphictyons make Philip their General (Oct.). He returns to Greece, defeats mercenaries under Chares and Proxenos, and destroys Amphissa.
3. Chaerondas338Isokrates Epist. III. Φιλίππῳ β́, II. 235. Death of Isokrates, II. 31. (—326 B. C.) Lykurgos, the orator, is ταμίας τῆς κοινῆς προσόδου, II. 375.Commissioners (including Demosthenes) appointed to restore fortifications of Athens: Demosthenes administers the θεωρικόν.—Immediately after destroying Amphissa, Philip hands over the Achaean Naupaktos to the Aetolians: then enters Phokis, and occupies Kytinion and Elateia (Feb.?).
4. Phrynichos337(Jan.?) At the annual winter Festival of the Dead in the outer Kerameikos, Demosthenes speaks the epitaph of those who fell at Chaeroneia. [Not extant: the Demosthenic or. 60 is spurious.]Battle of Chaeroneia: μεταγειτνίωνος ἑβδόμῃ (Aug. 2? Curt. v. 436 Eng. tr. n.). Peace ‘of Demades’ between Philip and Athens End of Athenian Naval Hegemony: Congress of Corinth: Hellenic League under Macedonian Hegemony: Philip Hellenic General against Persia. — Artaxerxes III. (Ὦχος) dies: Arses succeeds him.
111. Pythodemos336Ktesiphon proposes(March) that Demosthenes should be crowned at the Great Dionysia. Aeschines gives notice of an action παρανόμων against Ktesiphon. Deinarchos begins his activity as λογογράφος.Death of Arses: Dareios III. King of Persia (—330 B. C.). Parmenion and Attalos open the Persian War in Asia. Philip assassinated at Aegae (early in August). Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedon —He enters Greece: Thessaly, Amphictyons, Athens and Congress of Corinth acknowledge his hegemony.
2. Euaenetos335The surrender of Demosthenes. Lykurgos, &c. is demanded from Athens by Alexander:—Demades helps to arrange a peace.Parmenion repulsed in Asia by Memnon, who takes Ephesos. — Thebans rise against Macedon: Alexander takes and destroys Thebes (autumn).
3. Ktesikles334Aristotle settles at Athens and teaches in the Lykeron.—His Ῥητορική certainly later than 338 B.C.Alexander sets out for Persian War, and crosses Hellespont: wins battle of Granikos (May): reduces Aeolis and Ionia: takes Miletos and Halikarnassos: and advances to Gordion in Phrygia.
4. Nikokrates333 Alexander routs Dareios III. at Issos (Oct.).
112. Niketes332 Alexander besieges Tyre; takes it (July): takes Gaza: occupies Egypt: founds Alexandria: winters at Memphis.
2. Aristophanes331Lysippos, sculptor, flor. With his school began a decline of Sculpture, parallel to that of Oratory. Cf. II. 445. Kallisthenes of Stageiros, who went with Alexander to Asia, represents the decay of taste in oratorical prose.Alexander crosses Euphrates (July); routs Dareios at Arbela (Oct.); marches to Babylon, Susa and Persepolis.
3. Aristophon330(August?) Demosthenes or. 18 περὶ τοῦ στεφάνου, Aeschines or. 3 κατὰ Κτησιφῶντος, II. 398. — Aeschines leaves Athens. Lykurgos κατὰ Λεωκράτους, II. 376. Demades administers the θεωρικόν.—[Dem.] or. 17 περὶ τῶν πρὸς Ἀλέξανδρον συνθηκῶν (by Hegesippos?). Hypereides ὑπὲρ Ἐυξενίππου? II. 387.Spartans, under Agis III., rise against Macedon: are defeated at Megalopolis by Antipater; and accept Macedonian hegemony: death of Agis III. —Alexander pursues Dareios, who is murdered by Bessos in Parthia.—enters Hyrcania, Drangiania, and Aracosia: founds Alexandria ad Caucasum (Kandahar?).
4. Kephisophon329 Alexander enters Baktria and Sogdiana; takes Marakanda (Samarkand): crosses the Oxus and advances to Jaxartes: founds Alexandria Eschate (Khojend?).—Returns to winter-quarters in Baktria.
113. Euthykritos328Between 330 and 326 B.C. (Schäfer) there was a great dearth at Athens, during which Demosthenes administered the σιτωνία.Alexander subdues Sogdiana.— Slays Kleitos at Marakanda. —Harpalos sends supplies of corn to Athens, and receives the citizenship.
2. Hegemon327 Alexander crosses the Indus and enters the Punjaub.
3. Chremes326End of financial administration of Lykurgos (338 B.C. —): Menesaechmos becomes ταμίας. Fictitious date of the speech περὶ τῆς δωδεκαετίας (i.e. 338—326 B.C.): not by Demades, Sauppe II. 312.Alexander defeats Porus. — Begins his river-voyage southwards through India.
4. Antikles325 Alexander reaches mouth of Indus about July.—Sets out on march westward in Aug., and reaches capital of Gedrosia in Oct.—Nearchos sails for Persian Gulf in Oct.— Harpalos, the profligate treasurer of Alexander, crosses from Asia to Attica:—is warned from the Peiraeus, and goes to Taenaron.
114. Hegesias324Demarchos or. 1 κατὰ Δημοσθένους, or. 2 κατὰ Ἀριστογείτονος, or. 3 κατὰ Φιλοκλέους, II. 373. Hypereides κατὰ Δημοσθέ- νους.—Death of Lykurgos (before midsummer).Alexander celebrates the Dionysia at Susa. — Death of Hephaestion at Ekbatana.— Athens decrees divine honours to Alexander.—Demosthenes ἀρχιθέωρος at Olympia (July). — Areiopagos directs that Demosthenes, Philokles, Demades, &c. be prosecuted for taking bribes from Harpalos. —Demosthenes is fined and imprisoned:—escapes to Aegina.
2. Kephisodoros323Epikuros age 18 comes to Athens.Alexander holds court at Babylon and receives the embassies.—His death, June 8. Lamian War, promoted by Hypereides — Leosthenes of Athens defeats Antipater at Herakleia and besieges him in Lamia.
3. Philokles322Hypereides ἐπιτάφιος, II. 389. Death of Hypereides (Oct. 5). Death of Demosthenes (Oct. 12). Aristotle retires to Chalkis, and dies there (Oct.?). Theophrastos succeeds him in the Lykeron.Leosthenes killed before Lamia. Antiphilos succeeds to command of the Greeks and defeats Leonnatos. — Decisive victory of Macedonians at Krannon (Aug. 5).—Hellenic League breaks up. Athens submits to Antipater. On proposal of Demades, the Ekklesia pronounces Demosthenes, Hypereides, &c., traitors.
4. Archippos321New Comedy beginning.— Menander age 21 Ὀργή (his first play).—Philemon, Diphilos comici flor.Alexander's Empire divided among his Generals. Ptolemy founds a monarchy in Egypt (306) B. C. The descendants of Seleukos found a kingdom in Asia, which afterwards shrinks up into Syria. In Macedonia there is confusion till about 272 B.C.: then the house of Antigonos reigns till 168 B.C., when Rome abolishes the kingdom.
115. Neaechmos320  
2. Apollodoros319 Death of Antipater.
3. Archippos Olympiads.318 B.C.Death of Demades.—Demetrios Phalereus flor. Decline of Oratory begins. 
116. 4.314Death of Aeschines. 
120. 1.300Klertarchos of Soli, representative of the florid Asianism.306—285. Ptolemy Soter.
122. 3.290Hegesias of Magnesia, the so-called founder of Asianism, flor. 
127. 3.270Theokritos, Bion, Moschos flor.285—247. Ptolemy Philadelphos.
129. 1.264Timaeos of Tauromenion (now age circ. 70, resident at Athens since about 310 B.C.) brought his History down to this year. He represents the epigrammatic Asianism.280—251. First period of Achaean League. 247—222. Ptolemy Euergetes.
130. 1.260Kallimachos, the poet, librarian of Alexandria. 
132. 3.250A period of almost total205—181. Ptolemy Epiphanes.
157. 3.150darkness in the history of Greek Oratory. When light returns, Asianism is fully dominant, but a reaction to Attieism is just beginning.197. Battle of Kynoskephalae. The Greek allies of Rome, though nominally free, are henceforth practically dependent.
145. 1.200Aristophanes librarian of Alexandria. 
146. 3.194Apollonios Rhodios librarian of Alexandria. 
156. 1.156Aristarchos librarian of Alexandria. 
158. 3.146Polybios brought his History from 264 B. C. (where Timaeos left off) to this year.Corinth destroyed. The Achaean cities become formally subject to Rome. 145. Polybios legislates for the
165. 1.120Hierokles and Menekles repiesent the epigrammatic Asranism in its maturity.Achaean cities.
166. 3.114Hortensius born. 
167. 3110Approximate date for Hermagoras of Temnos [usually put much too late —by Clinton, about 62 B C. See Cic. de Invent. I. 8, written about 84 B. C., which shows that Hermagoras was then long dead: Blass die Griech. Ber. von Alex. bis zu Aug., pp.84f.] —Hermagoras founds the Scholiastic Rhetoric, and thus prepares the way for Atticism. Apollonios μαλακός emnent as a teacher of Rhetoric at Rhodes. 
168. 3.106Cicero born. 
170. 1.100Established fame of the Rhodian eclectic school of Oratory,—Attic in basis, but with Asian elements Julius Caesar born. Greek Rhetoric is already thoroughly fashionable at Rome. 
171. 2.95Apollonios, surnamed Molon (Cicero's master), eminent at Rhodes. 
172. 1.92L. Plotius and others open schools at Rome for the teaching of Rhetoric, no longer in Greek, but in Latin. 
173. 3.86 Sulla takes Athens.
174. 1.84Cicero De Inventione? 
3.82Caius Licinius Calvus born. 
175. 1.80The Rhetorica ad Herennium (mcerti) not earlier than this year.—Aeschylos of Knidos and Aeschines of Miletos represent the florid Asianism. Cf. 120 B.C. 
175. 2.79Cicero, age 27, at Athens. 
177. 4.69Hortensius, the Roman representative of Asranism, is Consul. After this time he comes little forward as a speaker; and leaves the field to Cicero, the representative of the Rhodian eclecticism. 
181. 2.55Cicero De Oratore. Calvus represents pure Atticism of the Lysian type. 
182. 3.50Apollodoros of Pergamos and Theodoros of Gadara are rival masters of Scholastic Rhetoric. 
183. 1. Death of Calvus. 
2.46Cicero Brutus. Cicero Orator. 
4.44Cicero De Optimo Genere Death of Caesar. Oratorum. 
184 1.43Death of Cicero. 
187. 3.30Didymos of Alexandria, grammarian and critic, flor.Octavianus (Augustus Caesar) begins to govern the Republic as Emperor.
188. 4.25Dionysios of Halikarnassos and Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian Greek, flourish at Rome as scholars and critics. Victory of Atticism over Asianism complete and nearly universal. 
189. 4.21 Athens deprived of its jurisdiction over Eretria and Aegina: Confederacy of the free Laconran cities formed by Augustus.
191. 3.A.D. 14 Death of Augustus.
192. 3.18Strabo (born 66 B.C.) published his γεωγραφικά about this year. 
213. 2.74Tacitus Dialogus De Oratoribus.69—79. Vespasian.
214. 4.80The βίοι τῶν δέκα ῥητόρων, wrongly ascribed to Plutarch, were perhaps compiled about this time, chiefly from Caecilius. 
217. 2.90Plutarch flor. Quintilian flor.81—96. Domitian. 98—117. Trajan.
230. 3.143Herodes Atticus, the master in Greek oratory of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, is made consul age 40, by Antoninus Prus. — Favorinus and Fronto flor.117—138. Hadrian. His visits to Athens, 122—135. 138—161. Antoninus Pius.
234. 4.160Lucian, a Syrian of Samosata, writes the best Attic Greek since Hypereides. — Aulus Gellius Noctes Atticac.—Pausanias the geographer, Ptolemy the astionomei, Polyaenos (Στρατηγήματα), and Galen flor.161—180. Marcus Aurelius.
237. 2.170Publius Aelius Aristeides, of Mysia, in his Παναθηναικός and ἱεροὶ λόγοι, imitates the Attic models of ἐπίδειξις. Hermogenes makes a complete digest of the Scholastic Rhetoric since Hermagoras of Temnos (110 B. C). It is contained in his περὶ στάσεων, περὶ ιδεῶν, περὶ εὑρέσεως, περὶ μεθόδου δεινότητος, προγυμνάσματα (in Rhetores Graeci, II. Spengel). Hermog. was the chief authority on his subject till Aphthonios. 
242. 2.190Athenaeos Δειπνοσοφισταί. Dio Cassius flor. — The ὀνομαστικόν of Julius Pollux drawn up about this time. 
247. 2.210Teitullian flor. 
249. 4.220Origen flor. 
251. 1.225Sextus Empiricus πρὸς τοὺς μαθηματικοὺς ἀντιρρητικοί: a controversy with the professors of (1) grammar and history, (2) rhetoric, (3) geometry. (4) arithmetic, (5) astrology, (6) music. — Diogenes Laertios φιλόσοφοι βίοι. 
253. 3.235Philostratos βίοι σοφιστῶν. Aelian flor. 
264. 4.280Timaeos λέξεις Πλατωνικαί. 
259. 4.260Longinus (Διονύσιος Κάσσιος Λογγῖνος) flor. His τέχνη ῥητορική is printed in Rhet. Graec., II. 298 f., ed. Spengel. [The treatise On the Sublime (περὶ ὕψους, ib. 245 f) may be his, and is at least of about this date. The ground of the doubt is that the oldest MS. has Διονυσίου (certainly not the Halikarnassian) Λογγίνου: another, ἀνωνύμου.]284—305. Diocletian. 306. Flavius Valerius Constantinus (the Great) begins to reign.
273. 3.315Aphthonios προγυμνάσματα (in Rhet. Graec. II. Spengel). This book superseded Hermogenes in the schools. At the Revival of Letters it again became a text-book of Rhetoric, saec. XVI. and XVII.323 — 337. Constantine makes Christianity the religion of the Empire, and builds Constantinople as its new capital.
282. 2.350Libanios of Antioch ὑποθέσεις εἰς τοὺς Δημοσθένους λόγους, βίος Δημοσθένους: μελέται: προγυμνασμάτων παραδείγματα, &c.—Gregory of Nazianzos: Athanasios flor.361—363. Julian Emperor. 379—395. Theodosios the Great.
289. 4.380Aelius Theon, of Alexandria, προγυμνάσματα (in Rhet. Graec. II. Speng.). [The only clue to his date is that he certainly used both Hermog. and Aphthonios, though he does not name them; and probably wrote while the popularity of the latter was fresh. Cf. Walz, Rhet Grace. vol. v pp. 137 f.] Eunapios of Sardis, βίοι φιλοσόφων καὶ σοφιστῶν.390—420. The Pagan religion prohibited, and (except in the rural districts) extinguished.
293. 2.394 Olympic Games abolished under Theodosios I.
 395 The Empire divided between the Caesar of the West and the Caesar of the East.
 397Ioannes, surnamed Χρυσόστομος, aichbishop of Constantinople. 
 480Ioannes Stobaeos, Ἀνθολό- γιον Ἐκλογαί. 
 800 Charles, king of the Franks, crowned Emperor of Rome.
 858Photios raised to the patriarchate, Dec. 25, βιβλιοθήκη, λεξέων συναγωγή. 
 988 Cherson, the last of the Greek Commonwealths, submits to Wladimir of Russia.
 1050? Byzantine Ἐτυμολογικὸν μέγα. 
 1100? Surdas λέξεις. Harpokration's Lexicon to the Ten Orators (λέξεις τῶν ί ῥητόρων) was used both by the compilers of the Etymologicum and by Suidas. Its author has been identified (1) with the Harpokration who taught Lucius Verus, about 150 A D.: (2) with the poet and teacher praised by Libanios, about 350 A. D.: (3) with the Harpokration of Mendes mentioned by Athenaeos —whom Schweighauser (ad XIV. 648 b) identifies with the friend of Julius Caesar. 

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