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est. Cf. 17 n.


spatiosi, often used in Ovid, as here, of time. Cf. XII. 186, “spatiosa senectus”.


aperti Martis, ‘of stricken fields,’ i.e. war ‘in the open,’ as opposed to stratagems and sieges. Cf. 11 n., 639 n.


decimo . . . anno, ‘in the tenth year, and never before, have we joined battle.’ Demum easily passes from its literal signification, ‘downmost,’ to introduce the instance or definition which, after the rejection or to the neglect of others as unsatisfactory, is found to satisfy perfectly the required conditions. Cf. Sall. Cat.XX. 4, “idem velle atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est”, Liv.i. IX. 5, “id enim demum compar connubium fore”. It is with the tenth year of the war that the action of the Iliadis concerned, the beginning of fighting coinciding with the withdrawal of Achilles.


tuus. The possessive adjective, strictly equivalent to a subjective or possessive genitive, sometimes, as here, by a variation of the conception, replaces an objective genitive. See Roby § 1315, Madv. § 297 obs. 1. For quis see 156 n.

si . . . requiris. Notice that this conditional clause qualifies, not the action of the following verbs, but the mention of this action, its relation to the principal clause being the same as that noticed on 141, 159. Cf. R. § 657, Roby § 1573.


fossas . . . cingo. In the Iliadthe rampart, which is within the trench (Halbertsma proposes to read classes), is built at the suggestion of Nestor (VII. 336-43, ib. 435-41). It is described Il.XII. 52-7. After the fall of Troy it was overthrown by Apollo and Neptune, who brought against it the strength of all the rivers, “ὅσσοι ἀπ᾽ Ἰδαίων ὀρέων ἅλαδε προρέουσιIl.XII. 13-33). Ehwald reads fossa munimina, to remove the difficulty as to the position of the trench.


consolor socios, suggested probably by the action of Ulysses in Il.II. 173-332, where he persuades the Greeks to return from the ships to the assembly, puts down the opposition of Thersites, and himself addresses them, making the longi taedia belli, which he deplores, a reason for waiting yet another year.


Iovis monitu. If this were connected with deceptus . . . somni, the reference of the whole would be to the message actually sent by Jupiter in a dream ( Il.II. 6-34), bidding Agamemnon attack Troy, and deceiving him by the promise of its immediate capture. But auctore below shows that it is to be connected with 217, and the reference is to Il.II. 114-5, where Agamemnon, in order to try the hearts of the Greeks, alleges that he is bidden to abandon the war and return home.


incepti, not ‘begun,’ for it was now near its end, but ‘essayed,’ ‘taken in hand.’ So incipere is used of the ineffectual effort which does not result in a beginning, as in Virg. Aen.VI. 493, “inceptus clamor frustratur hiantes”. See Henry on Aen.II. 13, Aeneidea, vol. II. pp. 26-8. Cf. 297.


auctore, sc. Iovis monitu, just as testibus is equivalent to testium dictis. For this use of the instrumental ablative see Madv. § 254, obs. 3, and the instances in Roby, § 1220. Notice that the meaning is not ‘by the fact that he had an instigator,’ but ‘by the greatness of his instigator,’ as will be seen from two other passages in which Ovid uses the word in the same construction, II. 281 (where Tellus prays to Jupiter that she may be delivered from the fires of Phaëthon), “liceat periturae viribus ignis igne perire tuo, clademque auctore levare”, and Her. xvi. 49 (where Helen excuses the fault of Leda by the greatness of Jove its author), “illa bene erravit, vitiumque auctore redemit”. Cf. the similar force of aemulus in 17.

suam vocem,his counsel,’ with emphasis, as contrasted with the want of excuse for the conduct of Ajax.


sinat . . . poscat . . . pugnet are to be referred not to the jussive subjunctive (Roby, §§ 1596-1602, R. § 668), but to the hypothetical (Roby, §§ 1534-8, R. §§ 642-4), in what is sometimes called the potential use of it, here most nearly rendered in English by ‘will.’ Cf. VII. 174, “nec sinat hoc Hecate, nec tu petis aequa”, and the following passages in Virgil: Ecl.II. 34 Ecl., X. 17, Georg.I. 457 Georg., II. 315 Georg., III. 141, Aen.I. 549, and for the similar use of the Greek optative Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, p. 113, note.


quodque potest, pugnet, ‘and fight, 'tis all he can.’ Cf. I. 657, “quodque unum potes, ad mea verba resurgis”. There is a play on the literal and metaphorical senses of pugnare, as Ajax was great only on the battlefield, and the reference here is to a battle of words. Cf. 285 n.

remoratur, ‘strives to stay,’ R. § 591 (3), and cf. 223 n.


dat . . . sequatur, ‘gives example which the unpurposed throng may follow,’ Roby, §§ 1632-4, R. § 680. For vaga cf. XIV. 680.


non erat hoc nimium, ‘this were (would be) no heavy task.’ It is unnecessary to suppose a change of standpoint from the time of dat and fugit to the time of speaking. In this construction with the imperfect indicative, for which English uses a present indicative or hypothetical expression, there is reference to some past belief or expectation, which has now been confirmed or disappointed, generally the latter. Cf. 503 n., X. 633, “vivere dignus eras” (where the thought in Atalanta's mind is ‘but your resolve to race with me condemns you to die’), Ex Pont. IV. xiii. 37, “scribas haec cum de Caesaredixit, ‘Caesaris imperio restituendus eras” Sometimes it takes an interrogative form, as in Virg. Aen.II. 664.It is excellently illustrated by Wickham on Hor. C. I. xxxvii. 4. Cf. Madv § 348e, Roby, § 1535c. For the corresponding Greek usage see Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, § 11, note 6, Jelf, § 398, 5, Madv. Greek Syntax, § 113, Rem.3 and App. § 257, C. ad fin., and cf. Eur. Ion, 185,οὐκ ἐν ταῖς ζαθέαις Ἀθάναις εὐκίονες ἦσαν αὐλαὶ θεῶν μόνον, οὐδ᾽ ἀγυιάτιδες θεραπεῖαι”, Androm. 418.

magna loquenti, to one who as we say ‘talked big.’ Cf. IX. 31, “puduit modo magna locutum cedere”.


quid . . . fugit, ‘nay, he is himself for flight.’ Cf. 220 n. The elliptical question, quid (est) quod fugit? is like our idiom, ‘why (do I talk of this), he etc.’ Cf. 296, XIV. 687.

vidi . . . dares, ‘with shame I saw you turn your back,’ a skilful misrepresentation of Ajax's action in turning to the ships. The originally adverbial clause, cum . . . dares, is here almost substantival. Cf. Roby, § 1724, R. § 726, XIV. 181.


inhonesta vela, ‘inglorious sails,’ the epithet properly belonging to the voyage.


nec mora, ‘instantly.’ Mora is generally thus found with nec and haud. Sometimes the verb is expressed, as in I. 369, “nulla mora est; adeunt pariter Cephisidas undas”.


captam . . . Troiam, ‘to forego Troy when it is yours,’ i.e. as good as yours, a touch of exaggeration intended to compel attention. Nine years had passed, and the fall of Troy in the tenth had been foretold by Calchas (xii. 20). For the infinitive cf. XIV. 250, n., and the similar use of compello and impello.


in quae, ‘to utter which.’ Cf. 29 n.

dolor ipse, ‘mere grief.’ Cf. 262, XIV. 428.


aversos, sc. from Troy, still with the suggestion of flight, which it describes in Virg. Aen.XI. 871, “tuta petunt, et equis aversi ad moenia tendunt”.

reduxi, by persuasion (cf. 333), as retraxi (237), by force of hand.

230. Korn (whom Ehwald does not follow) rejects this line (1) because Ulysses and not Agamemnon ( Il.II. 179-210) reassembled the Greeks; (2) because the reference of socios is vague, and paventes an inappropriate epithet; (3) because the substance of the line is anticipated in 229; (4) as a leonine hexameter. Cf. 378 n. 461.


hiscere quicquam, Roby, § 1094, R. § 461.


ausus erat. The tense has reference to erigor, the standard of time not being given till a subsequent separate sentence, Roby, § 1489.


Thersites. See Il.II. 211-77 for his insolent speech and its punishment by Ulysses, which puts the disheartened Greeks into good humour: “οἱ δὲ, καὶ ἀχνύμενοί περ, ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἡδὺ γέλασσαν”.

per me, as far as I was concerned, ‘whom I left not unpunished.’ Cf. Cic. pro Rosc. Am.xlix. § 144, “ut sibi per te liceat innocentem vitam in egestate degere”. Cf. 744 n.


erigor, ‘I rise.’ Cf. 53 n.

cives, ‘countrymen,’ with a correlative force which makes it, like the English word, equivalent to ‘fellow-countrymen.’


repono, ‘restore,’ Bentley's emendation for reposco of MSS., is now confirmed by a MS. discovered in the convent of Nicholas S. at Passau. Cf. Hor. C. III. v. 30 (quoted on 10).


potest, ‘may.’ Cf. XIV. 567 n.


meum est . . . retraxi. Cf. 171 for a similar argument.


petit, ‘courts the company of,’ ‘resorts to.’ The word is specially used of love-suits, as in 755.

239-42. In IliadX. 220-47 Diomede, being bidden by Agamemnon to choose one out of the many who offer to join him in the visit to the Trojan camp by night, replies: “εἰ μὲν δὴ ἕταρίν γε κελεύετε μ᾽ αὐτὸν ἑλέσθαι, πῶς ἂν ἔπειτ᾽ Ὀδυσῆος ἐγὼ θείοιο λαθοίμην, οὗ πέρι μὲν πρόφρων κραδίη καὶ θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ ἐν πάντεσσι πόνοισι, φιλεῖ δέ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. τούτου γε σπομένοιο καὶ ἐκ πυρὸς αἰθομένοιο ἄμφω νοστήσαιμεν, ἐπεὶ περίοιδε νοῆσαι.


est aliquid, ‘it is no slight thing.’ This phrase, which occurs frequently in Ovid, varies in force like its English equivalent, as may be seen by contrasting Trist. V. i. 59, “est aliquid fatale malum per verba levare”, with Fast.VI. 27, “est aliquid nupsisse Iovi, Iovis esse sororem”, and this passage. Cf. Liv. VI. xli. 2, “est aliquis, qui se inspici, aestimari fastidiat”.


a Diomede, ‘and that by Diomede,’ the name being emphasised. Aristotle ( Rhet.II. xx. 23) mentions that in the Ajax of Theodectes Diomede was represented as choosing Ulysses for a very different reason, “οὐ τιμῶν, ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα ἥττων ἀκολουθῶν”.

nec . . . iubebat. The contrast with the case of Ajax (88, cf. XIV. 251) is brought out even more by iubebat than by sors; ‘my essay was not, like yours, compulsory.’


sum, which is now ascertained to be the reading of the cod. Marcianus, requires in 244 Korn's conjecture ausus et ausum eadem. For sic, the reading of Heinsius accepted by Merkel, Riese, Zingerle and Ehwald (‘yet even so,’ though I was, unlike you, free to go or stay) cf. Her.viii. 25, “sic quoque eram repetenda tamen”.


ausum eadem, ‘one that had dared the same quest as we,’ as daring as ourselves.

eadem. Roby, § 1094, R. § 461.


interimo, an issue which contrasts with the indecisive result of the combat with Hector (279). In Homer ( Il.X. 377 Il., 455) Dolon is taken unwounded by Ulysses and Diomede, and subsequently killed by the latter.

non ante tamen. Ulysses is careful to mention that he does not, like Ajax, forget to combine policy with valour.


perfida Troia. The guilt of Laomedon's faithlessness is extended to the race, as in Hor. C. III. iii. 24 (see 157 n., and for the fraud practised on Apollo and Neptune, Il.XXI. 436-60). References of the kind are frequent. In Virg. Aen.III. 248, the Trojans are addressed as Laomedontiadae (cf. ib. IV. 542, V. 811). In Georg.I. 502, the civil wars of Rome are fancifully described as the penalty due to Laomedon's offence, while in Horace l.c. vengeance is satisfied by the destruction of Troy itself.


nec . . . habebam, ‘and had nought left me to espy,’ Roby, §§ 1632-4, R. § 680.


promissa, promised, together with gifts from the chiefs, by Nestor , Il.X. 212-17.

poteram . . . reverti, ‘could have turned back.’ For the indicative cf. 17 n., and for the middle reverti 53 n.


eo, neuter.

Rhesi. In Homer ( Il.X. 495) Rhesus, like Dolon, is killed by Diomede, Ulysses undertaking meanwhile the charge of the horses, for which see 98 n.


captivo with curru. The word is used not uncommonly of inanimate things, though the allusion here is specially to the horses, 252, n, 253 n. Cf. Fast.III. 731, “cinnama tu primus captivaque thura dedisti”, Hor. Epp.II. i. 193, Virg. Aen.II. 765, where Conington remarks that the usage is not confined to poetry, and refers to the similar use of “αἰχμάλωτος”. Cf. Fast.V. 593, “Parthe, refers aquilas; victos quoque porrigis arcus”, Ex Pont. II. i. 41, “deque triumphato...auro aurea Romani tecta fuisse fori”.


triumphos. Ulysses is made by an anachronism to use the comparison of a Roman triumph. The point of the comparison is in the colour of the horses, which were “λευκότεροι χιόνος” ( Il.X. 437). Cf. 253 n.


cuius . . . hostis. Dolon required an oath from Hector that no other of the Trojans should possess the chariot and horses of Achilles ( Il.X. 323). It may be observed that hostis in the singular is not equivalent to ‘enemy’ in its collective sense, except by a poetical usage similar to that by which the singular of national names is used for the nation, as in Hor. C. III. viii. 21, “servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae Cantaber sera domitus catena”. This usage is especially common in Livy, and is fully illustrated by Drakenborch on III. ii. 12. Cf. 567 n., 662 n.

equos includes the chariot. Cf. XIV. 820, Trist. v. VII. 14, “per medias in equis itque reditque vias”. So of the dragon car of Ceres, Fast.IV. 561, “inque dracones transit et alifero tollitur axe Ceres”, of Ariadne in the car of Bacchus, Her.II. 79, “inque capistratis tigribus alta sedet”, and of Cybele's team of lions Her., XIV. 538.Conversely currus includes the horses, G. I. 514, “neque audit currus habenas”, Aen.I. 156, “curruque volans dat lora secundo”, ib. XII. 287, “infrenant alii currus”. Cf. the remarkable uses, Sil.ii. 197, “ferventesque rotas, turbataque frena pavore”, id. IV. 482, “condebat noctem devexo Cynthia curru, fraternis afflata rotis” (of horses startled and snorting respectively). See Lexicon for similar uses of “ἅρμα” (esp. in plural) and “ἵπποι”, and Dr. Henry, Aeneidea, vol. I. pp. 436-7. Cf. Mitchell on Soph. El. 740.

pro nocte, for his night adventure. Cf. Milt. P. l. V. 93, ‘Thus Eve her night related’ (her dream of the night); where Hume quotes Sil.iii. 216, “promissa evolvit somni, noctemque retractat”.


arma . . . mihi, in emphatic correspondence with equos . . . hostis, a similar service deserving a similar reward.

fuerit . . . Aiax. These words have been variously corrected, as by Muretus to ferat haec ut dignior Aiax, while benignior has been generally explained, on the analogy of its use as an epithet of trees and fields which produce largely (cf. 270, n., Amor. I. x. 56, “praebeat Alcinoi poma benignus ager”), to mean ‘more beneficent,’ ‘more helpful,’ ‘melius meritus,’ an explanation denounced by Bentley as ‘neither Latin nor sense.’ Heinsius suggested that it might have the force of ‘qui benignius habetur,’ ‘gratiosior,’ ‘blandior’ (‘more acceptable,’ almost ‘more persuasive’), but confessed himself unable to find a parallel, and Burmann's endeavour (on Petron. xliv.) to support this meaning seems to be unsuccessful. Bentley (who was, however, inclined to reject this and the preceding line) no doubt gives the right explanation, ‘even Ajax himself, as much as he is my enemy, would reward my services more generously’ (Pref. to Phalaris, p. 1xx.); there is then a reference to the ironical proposal of Ajax in 102. The imperative negate is equivalent to a conditional clause (si negaveritis), Roby, § 1557, R. § 651 n. Cf. XIV. 488 n.


Sarpedonis. Ulysses was not destined to kill Sarpedon, as he at first intended when the latter was borne wounded out of the battle, but was directed by Minerva against his Lycian followers ( Il.V. 663-78).

257-8 are closely reproduced from Il.V. 677-8; 258 also appears in Virg. Aen.IX. 76-7 among a list of Trojans slain by Turnus.

259-60. See Il.XI. 422-7. The description of Ennomus is perhaps the result of a confusion with the soothsayer of that name mentioned in Il.II. 858-9 as slain by Achilles.


sunt . . . vulnera, ‘I have wounds beside,’ unlike Ajax (267, cf. 392 n.). This is an effective reply to the contrast made by Ajax between their respective shields, 117-9.

ipso . . . loco, i.e. as being in the breast. Cf. Fast.II. 211, “inhonestaque vulnera tergo accipiunt”, Virg. Aen.XI. 55-7. Such wounds might be skilfully used to influence the feelings of a jury, as by Antonius in procuring the acquittal of M'. Aquilius, Cic. de Cic. Orat.ii. xxviii.§ 124. Cf. Sall. Jug.85, § 29.


quid . . . refert, ‘yet what matters that?’ He goes on to answer a possible objection on the part of Ajax that his unwounded condition by itself proves nothing. Notice that the clause introduced by si is strictly conditional, and not as with quid mirum practically substantival. Cf. Cic. Cat. m. § 35, “quid mirum igitur in senibus, si infirmi sunt aliquando”.

pro classe. Cf. 91 foll.


maligne, ‘niggardly.’ The word is used (as benignus in the opposite sense of ‘bountiful,’ ‘liberal’) even of things which are merely ‘scanty,’ as of faint moonlight, Virg. Aen.VI. 270.


meum, with emphasis. He will not follow the example of Ajax in 98-104.

ne . . . honorem. If these clauses are separated from what follows (Merkel, Riese and Zingerle have a full stop after honorem), they come under Roby, § 1596, R. § 668. But they are perhaps to be referred to the idiom noticed on XIV. 32, when for the affirmative clause of purpose following a negative (unless utque were read, from aut of M), cf. 656 n., XIV. 32 n. Although he returned to the battle when wounded, Ulysses claims no merit himself, but takes as representative of the listening chiefs one whose name could now arouse no jealousy. Ehwald adopts this view, punctuating with a comma.


Actorides. Patroclus, son of Menoetius, and grandson of Actor, was armed by Achilles and sent at the head of the Myrmidons to repel the Trojan assault, before which Ajax was just then giving way. His success and subsequent death by the spear of Hector are related in Iliadxvi.

tutus, ‘shielded’ beneath the guise of Achilles, not ‘safe,’ for he lost his life. Cf. 743, VII. 808, tutus (‘armed’) “eram iaculo”. Patroclus took all the weapons of Achilles, except the great spear which only Achilles himself could wield.


ab arsuris carinis, from the ships which but for his coming would have been burned. The use of the future participle is like that in the apodosis of conditional sentences, Roby, § 1520, R. § 628. For carinis cf. XIV. 534 n.


regisque . . . meique, of Agamemnon and the chiefs, among whom, as in 272, Ulysses does not count himself. See 87 n.


nonus . . . sortis, ‘ninth in loyalty and preferred by favour of the lot.’ As Siebelis suggests, nonus must mean ‘one of nine,’ as opposed to solum. So “sexta cervice” means ‘on six necks’ in Juv.i. 64, where see Mayor; compare the use of “septima parsJuv., VI. 192, of “quotus” in IX. 69, and of “centena arbore” for centum remis in Virg. Aen.X. 207.Milton has a similar use, P.l. VIII. 128. Ajax with his namesake stood up third, Ulysses himself being the last to respond to the speech of Nestor , Il.VII. 162-8. Officium is ‘the sense of duty,’ as in Trist. III. iv. 65, “sed timor officium cautus compescit”, B.G. I. xl. 14, “ut quam primum posset intellegere, utrum apud eos pudor atque officium an timor valeret”.


quis. Cf. 156 n.

Hector . . . nullo. According to Homer Ajax had the best of the combat, and wounded Hector in the neck before it was stopped by the heralds, Il.VII. 262.


me miserum, Roby, § 1128, R. 472.


Graium murus. Cf. Il.I. 284, “ἕρκος Ἀχαιοῖσιν πέλεται πολέμοιο κακοῖο”, of Achilles; the same phrase is used several times of Ajax. Cf. Theogn. 233, “Ἀκρόπολις καὶ πύργος ἐὼν κενεόφρονι δήμῳ”.


procubuit. See XII. 575-653 for the death of Achilles by an arrow shot by Apollo in the likeness of Paris. His doom is only prophetically alluded to in the Iliad, as by the dying Hector, XXII. 359. The subsequent combat was related by Arctinus in the Aethiopis, where Ajax is represented as carrying off the body.


humo . . . referrem, ‘lift from the ground and bear away.’ For the ablative of the place from which movement is made see Roby, § 1258, R. § 509.


tuli, ferre, a play on the literal and metaphorical meanings such as is noticed on 220: Ulysses ‘carried’ the arms which he now aspires to ‘carry off’ or win (cf. 19, 383).

laboro, ‘am fain,’ ‘crave.’ Cf. 809.


valeant in, ‘will suffice to bear.’ Cf. Amor. I. vii. 25, “in mea vaesanas habui dispendia vires, et valui poenam fortis in ipse meam”. Cf. 29 n.


vestros, equivalent to subjective genitive, R. § 518.

sensurus, ‘capable of understanding.’ Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 359, “qui numina Phoebi, qui tripodas, Clarii laurus, qui sidera sentis et volucrum linguas et praepetis omina pennae”.

honores, ‘gift.’ The word is frequently used in this sense, especially of sacrificial gifts, as in 447, XIV. 128, Virg. Aen.I. 49.So it is used of the act of sacrifice, id. Georg.III. 486, “in honore deum medio”.


caerula mater, Thetis. The epithet is applied especially to sea and river deities, as in 742 to Doris, in 895 and 962 to Acis and Glaucus after metamorphosis, and in Virg. Aen.VIII. 64, to the Tiber. In XIV. 555, the ships of Aeneas being already caeruleae undergo no change of colour in becoming sea-nymphs. The same colour is described by viridis, as may be seen from the ascription of this epithet to the same deities in Her.V. 57, Trist. I. ii. 59 (as to the Britons stained with woad, Amor. II. xvi. 39), and by ferrugineus (cf. 960) in Virg. Aen.VI. 303(cf. ib. 410). This last colour (which is identified with ostrum by Virgil, Aen.XI. 772) ‘seems to be a dark violet, like that of steel after it has been heated in the fire and cooled, answering, therefore, to Homer's “πορφύρεος” or “οἶνοψ” applied to the sea; as in certain weathers the Mediterranean has precisely such a colour,’ (Munro on Lucr.iv. 76). Cf. Con. on G. I. 236, Com. 29, 434, ‘blue meagre hag.’


ambitiosa fuit, ‘was solicitous,’ ‘made fond entreaty.’ The armour of Achilles having been stripped from the body of Patroclus by Hector, who put it on himself, Thetis visited Vulcan to entreat him to make new arms for her son, Il.XVIII. 428-61.


sine pectore, ‘witless.’ Cf. 326, 369.


clipei caelamina. See Il.XVIII. 483, foll. The river of Ocean ran round the rim of the shield in the outermost of the five circles of graven work, sun, moon, and stars occupying the middle, and various scenes of city and pastoral life the other three. Cf. 684 n.


immunem . . . Arcton, ‘the beare that never dives in sea,’ Golding. Cf. 727 and Fast.IV. 575, “liquidique immunia ponti alloquitur gelido proxima signa polo”, Il.XVIII. 489, “οἴη δ᾽ ἄμμορός ἐστι λοετρῶν Ὠκεανοῖο”. So in Trist. I. ii. 27, it is called sicca. This was found a painful privilege when Phaethon set the world on fire (ii. 171), “tum primum radiis gelidi caluere Triones et vetito frustra tentarunt aequore tingui”. The other circumpolar constellations which do not set in the latitude of Greece, including the Little Bear, were not named in Homeric times, but Ovid, though the singular is often thus used, also uses the plural, and specially refers to the discovery of the lesser Bear, and to its use by the Phoenicians in navigation, Fast.III. 107.


diversasque urbes, ‘and cities twain,’ one in peace, the other besieged, Il.XVIII. 490-540. Korn thinks urbes corrupt because Ulysses could not declare Ajax unable to recognise the cities, while the mention of them comes in awkwardly among the stars, and with this exception Ovid confines himself to what would have special interest for the sailor-hero Ulysses. (The last remark, however, seems to take no account of Od.I. 3, Hor Epp.I. ii. 19, A.P. 142). He therefore prefers orbes, which is found in a Bolognese MS., and which he would interpret of the polar circles, or polos. Zingerle adopts ursas, the conjecture of C. Schenkl. Ehwald reads orbes. explaining it of sun and moon (cf. IV. 348).

Orionis ensem, a conspicuous object in the sky, formed by three bright stars. The story of the Boeotian hunter Orion takes various shapes, in several of which he is shot by Artemis or killed by a scorpion. In Fast.V. 537-44, as a punishment for his boast that no beast can encounter him, he has to defend Latona against a scorpion, and for his service is turned into a constellation.

295. This line was rejected by Bentley as a mere repetition of 291, and probably arose from a marginal note.


quid, quod, used here, as in XIV. 687, in passing to a new point.


arguit, ‘reproaches,’ ‘denounces.’

incepto. There is no reference to the actual beginning of warlike operations, but only to the recognition of the pledge given to Tyndareus, for which see 34 n. Cf. 217 n.

serum, emphatic, forming a secondary predicate to accessisse, R. § 435.


Achilli. Cf. 162 n.


sum maturior, ‘arrived earlier.’ The tense has reference to the time of the discovery: ‘I prove to have arrived earlier.’


pia, ‘fond,’ the quality being slightly in excess. Cf. Fast.IV. 555, where the mother, stulte pia, snatches her boy from the hearth, and frustrates the kind intent of Ceres.


si iam. Cf. 101 n.

defendere, ‘to repel,’ crimen being under the double government of timeo and defendere.

304-5. Ulysses can claim to have detected the deceit of Achilles, while Ajax was at fault in both cases. Cf. 164.


neve admiremur, ‘and that we may not marvel,’ Roby, § 1660, R. § 690.


damnasse, sc. falso crimine. There was no less shame in condemning Palamedes on a false charge than in accusing him. Notice the effect of the asyndeton and the exact chiasmus (R. §§ 940, 947).


Naupliades, son of Nauplius. Cf. 39.


praesto . . . patebant, ‘lay bare revealed to light,’ supplying crimina as subject. With the reading pretio, objecta should be taken substantively, ‘the crime (the thing charged) was revealed by its wage.’ See 56 n.

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