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Vulcania Lemnos. ‘The whole island bears the strongest marks of the effects of volcanic fire; the rocks in many places are like the burnt and vitrified scoria of furnaces.

Ov. 1

Hence we may account for its connection with Hephaestus, who, when hurled from heaven by Zeus, is said to have fallen upon Lemnos. The island was therefore sacred to Hephaestus, who was frequently called the Lemnian god,’ Dict. Geogr. See 45 n.

consensistis, ‘you were consenting thereto,’ a sense which the English verb has now lost. Cf. Milton, Par. Reg. II. 130, ‘with the vote consenting in full frequence was empowered.’

labori. R. § 474, b.

cum . . . satis, ‘though it were enough.’ The subjunctive belongs to Roby, §§ 1730-2, R. §§ 732-4, and not also to Roby, § 1536, R. § 644, the expression being one of those noticed on 17 and 72, in which the indicative is used for what in English would generally be put hypothetically. Cf. Cic. Lael. § 98, “satis erat responderemagnas.’ Ingentes, inquit.

quoniam, ‘whereas.’ Cf. 159 n., and for the matter, 99 n.

ne mandate mihi, ‘give me no commission.’

delenda ad Pergama, ‘for Troy's destruction.’ Cf. 64 n.

arte, ‘stratagem.’

The use of such images of the impossible is common. Cf. XIV. 37-9, Ex Pont. IV. v. 41-4, Hor. C. I. xxxiii. 7-9, Epod.XVI. 25-34, Virg. Ecl.I. 59-63. Another way of using them may be seen in Virg. Ecl.VIII. 27-8, Hor. C. I. xxix. 10-6, Trist. I. viii. 1-8, where such impossibilities are declared to be possible after the occurrence of some surprising or unnatural event.

cessante . . . rebus, ‘while my thought for your cause is at fault.’ Cf. 290 n.

prosit. Roby, § 1672, R. § 698.

sis licet. Cf. 18 n.

dure, in accordance with his furious resentment against the chiefs, and especially Ulysses, as described by Sophocles.

cupiasque . . . dari, ‘and long that chance would give me to thee in thy pain.’

haurire, ‘spill,’ ‘shed,’ as we speak of ‘drawing’ blood. Cf. 425 n. After this verse follows in all MSS. utque tui mihi sic fiat tibi copia nostri, which is now generally omitted. Korn remarks on the difficulty of connecting this with cupias in the protasis, or making it (with fiet for fiat) the beginning of the apodosis, and suggests that it arose from a marginal note, taken from III. 391, subsequently expanded into a verse. Madvig proposes (Advers. Crit. vol. II. p. 91) to make it parenthetic, reading for sic sit (which, he says, is found also in one of Heinsius' MSS.), ‘aye, and let me fall into thy hands, so that thou fall into mine.’ In 333 the latter half appears also as longe formidine pulsa, and has evidently been supplied by interpolation. Bentley proposed to complete it by fiet tibi copia nostri, a correction made independently by Riese. Siebelis and Zingerle follow Merkel in retaining mecum . . . nitar.

tam, ‘as truly,’ ‘as surely.’

faveat Fortuna. Roby § 1554.

Dardanio vati, Helenus. Cf. 99 n.

signum penetrale, ‘the shrined effigy,’ occupying the inmost and holiest place. Cf. 99 n.

conferat. Roby, § 1610, R. § 674. Cf. 6.

prohibebant, of the continuous effect of the prohibition, just as the present (present imperfect) is used of divine ordinances still in force, as in Virg. Aen.I. 553, “si datur Italiam sociis et rege recepto tendere”.

sua aede, ‘from her own temple,’ the adjective being emphasised by position. For the use of suus see R. § 894, and cf. 356, 464; it is very common in Ovid, as may be seen from a collection of passages in an appendix to Mr. Hallam's edition of the Fasti.

eripere, raptam. This repetition by a participle of the action of a previous verb seems often to be merely ornamental. Sometimes, as perhaps here, it may have the force noticed and illustrated by Orelli on Hor. Sat.II. iii. 104, “si quis emat citharas, emptas comportet in unum” (‘statim postquam eas emerit’). See also Prof. Seeley's note on Livy I. x. 4, “exercitum fundit fugatque, fusum persequitur” (‘routs and instantly pursues’), and cf. 426, IV. 712, “ut in aequore summo umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram”, and for a similar use of the present participle, VI. 656. Cf. I. 33.


Telamone creatus, R. § 512. Cf. 123 n.

taurorum . . . septem, a sarcastic description of the sevenfold shield. Cf. 2 n.

Troiae victoria, R. § 525.

vinci . . . coegi, i.e. I made its conquest possible. The reasoning is that of 171-8. Cf. 374.

meum, ‘my friend.’

pars . . . illo, ‘he has his portion of glory in the deed.’ Diomede shared the expedition of Ulysses ( Virg. Aen.II. 163), who, according to one tradition, tried to kill him on the way to the camp, in order to have the sole credit of it.

qui. Cf. 63 n.

pugnacem . . . minorem, ‘that the warrior is inferior to the sage.’

sciret, peteret. Contrast the tenses of 346-7, and cf. 128 n.

moderatior, ‘less presumptuous.’ Ajax, son of Oileus, king of the Ozolian Locrians, though described by Homer as far inferior to Ajax, son of Telamon ( Il.II. 628), was one of the chief Grecian heroes, especially distinguished for speed of foot and skill in the use of the spear. He violated the sanctity of the temple of Pallas by dragging from it Cassandra (cf. 410, XIV. 468), who had taken refuge there. For this offence his ship was wrecked on the Capharean rocks off Euboea (XIV. 472 n.), and himself killed. (Cf. Virg. Aen.I. 39-45, ib. II. 403-6).

Eurypylus, son of Euaemon, a Thessalian hero who led forty ships to Troy ( Il.II. 734-7).

Andraemone natus, Thoas (not to be confounded with the Thoas of 399), chief of the Aetolians, also the leader of forty ships ( Il.II. 638-44).

Idomeneus , son of Deucalion, and grandson of Minos, led the Cretans in eighty ships ( Il.II. 645-52). He was one of the suitors of Helen.

patria . . . eadem, either Crete or the town in Crete, Lyctus, from which both came ( Virg. Aen.III. 401, Hom. Il.XVII. 611). Cf. 421 n.

Meriones, another Cretan hero, comrade and friend of Idomeneus. These six, with Ulysses, Ajax, and Agamemnon, made up the nine who offered to fight with Hector ( Il.VII. 162-9). There was at Olympia, where it was seen and described by Pausanias, a bronze group representing them, with Nestor in the act of casting lots. The figure of Agamemnon was distinguished by an inscription, that of Idomeneus by the figure of a cock, the bird sacred to his grandfather Helios, while that of Ulysses was wanting, having been carried off, as was said, by Nero.

maioris . . . Atridae, Menelaus, who had previously made the same offer, but was dissuaded by Agamemnon (ib. 96-122). Cf. XII. 623, “non minor Atrides, non bello maior et aevo”.

quippe. Siebelis takes this as conjunction, connecting sunt also with manu fortes, ‘since they are mighty of hand and in fight my peers, it was to my gift of policy they yielded.’ It may, however, be taken as in XIV. 91 and 525, nec . . secundi, being then parenthetical.

vires sine mente. For the disparagement of strength without wisdom, cf. Hor. C. III. iv. 65-8, with Orelli's note.

ratem qui temperat, the steersman.

anteit, as a disyllable.

remigis officium, ‘the oarsman's function,’ where we should say ‘the oarsman,’ an instance of the idiom called comparatio compendiaria, which results in comparing a person with a thing. It is common in Livy, as II. xiii. 8, “supra Coclites Muciosque id facinus esse”, which is in form the converse of this passage. Cf. id. V. xxiii. 6, Iovis Solisque equis aequiparari dictatorem.

milite, in the strict sense of the word, of a private footsoldier, our ‘linesman.’ Thus he is distinguished from officers, Liv.viii. VI. 15, “milites militibus, centurionibus centuriones, tribuni tribunis compares collegaeque”, from cavalry, id. XXVI. xix. 10, “decem milia militum et mille equites”. A number of passages from Caesar are collected by Gronovius a note on Liv.xxviii. I. 5.So exercitus is properly the body of milites, XXXVI. 8, “pars exercitus cum omni equitatu”.

tantum following quanto, as in Virg. Aen.XII. 19.

in corpore nostro, ‘in the frame of man,’ ‘in our human body.’

vigor, ‘life,’ the principle of vitality.

quibus, ablative of duration, Roby, § 1184, R. § 493.

anxius egi, ‘I lived unquiet.’ Cf. Tac. Agr.V. 2, “et anxius et intentus agere”.

hunc . . . nostris, ‘pay this honour as the meed for my service done.’ Titulus occurs frequently in Ovid in this sense. Cf. VII. 56, “titulum servatae pubis Achivae”.

labor . . . est, ‘our toil is near its end.’

obstantia fata. Cf. 339.

deos. The reference is to the Palladium only. Cf. 82 n. This use of the plural by generalising the expression appears to lay stress on the connotation of the common noun, giving it almost the same effect as would be produced by the use of an abstract term. It was ‘the presence of deity’ of which Ulysses deprived Troy. Cf. Hor. C. IV. xii. 8 (of Procne's vengeance on Tereus) “barbaras regum est ulta libidines”, Eur. Herc. Fur. 455 (of Amphitryon, Megara, and the three sons of Hercules),ὁμοῦ γέροντες καὶ νέοι καὶ μητέρες”.

per . . . agendum, ‘by whatsoever yet may need to be wisely done.’ Peris strictly without a case. The construction is very common. Cf. Virg. Aen.II. 142, ib. X. 903, Liv.xxiii. IX. 2, “per ego te, inquit, fili quaecumque iura liberos iungunt parentibus”.

audax, requiring courage in the doer. Cf. Ars. Amat. II. 22, “audacem pinnis repperit ille viam”.

ex praecipiti petendum, ‘full of peril in the quest,’ lit. ‘to be sought from the steep.’ After this verse follows in all MSS. si Troiae fatis aliquid restare putatis, which, from its form as a leonine hexameter (cf. 230, n. 461), and from its want of force or appropriateness, all recent editors follow Bentley in rejecting.

non datis, ‘will not give.’ Cf. 101 n.

fatale, ‘fateful,’ associated with or required by destiny. So Camillus is called ( Liv.v. XIX. 2) “fatalis dux ad excidium illius urbis servandaeque patriae”. Cf. Hor. C. III. iii. 19.

mota est, ‘was persuaded.’

quid . . . patuit, ‘the power of eloquence was revealed in fact’ Cf. 569, and for plural rebus, XIV. 385, Amor. I. xii. 27, “ego vos rebus duplices pro nomine sensi”.

tulit, ‘bore off,’ ‘won.’ Cf. 285 n.

solus, in single combat.

totiens, a generalisation from the one incident mentioned in 91. Cf. the use of the plural in 376, and the similar use of totiens in Virg. Aen.I. 407.

unam . . . iram, ‘by anger and by anger alone is overborne.’ There was a celebrated picture at Rome by Timomachus, representing Ajax in his madness meditating suicide. It is mentioned with its companion picture, the Medea, in Trist. II. 525, “sedct vultu fassus Telamonius iram, inque oculis facinus barbara mater habet”. The two were purchased by Julius Caesar for eighty Attic talents (£19,500), and placed in the temple of Venus Genetrix, which he dedicated in an unfinished state in 45 B.c. Cf. Aetna595.

hic certe, ‘this at least.’

an. Roby, § 2255, R. § 888.

hoc. sc. ense, ablative.

domini, ‘of its master.’

tum demum, ‘never till then.’

qua . . . ferrum, ‘throughout its length,’ ‘up to the hilt.’ The other reading, qua patuit ferro (‘where he was exposed to the sword’), was explained by reference to the story that Ajax when a child was rendered invulnerable, except under the arms, by being wrapped by Hercules in his lion skin. But this is inconsistent with pectus. Sophocles makes Ajax fall upon his sword, which after his death still remains fixed in the ground (Ajax, 906), and the suicide is dictated by the shame of discovering that in his madness he has been slaughtering the flocks and herds of the Greek army.

Oebalio de vulnere, from the wound of Hyacinthus, son of Oebalus, beloved by Apollo, who accidentally killed him with the discus. See X. 183-214, where, as here, Ovid combines the two legends as to the flower. Apollo says to the dying Hyacinthus: “flosque novus scripto gemitus imitabere nostros. tempus et illud erit, quo se fortissimus heros addat in hunc florem, folioque legatur eodem. ipse suos gemitus foliis inscribit, et AI AI flos habet inscriptum.

The double sign (littera) is taken to represent first the lament over Hyacinthus (“αἰαῖ”), secondly the initial letters of the name of Ajax. As to the identity of the flower there is much dispute. Some have maintained that it is the Blue Flag (Iris Germanica), others that it is a variety of the Corn Flag, such as the one called Gladiolus Byzantinus, rose-purple in colour. Ovid, whom Keightley calls ‘a more accurate observer than Virgil,’ says that it resembled a white lily except in colour, and it has been identified by Martyn, whom Keightley follows, with Lilium Martagon, or Turk's Cap Lily. “Daubeny, who examines the question what the flower was at some length (Roman Husbandry, pp. 236-8), concludes ‘that the term “ὑάκινθος” was in general applied to some plant of the lily tribe; but that the poets confounded with this the larkspur (Delphinium Ajacis l.), which has upon it the markings alluded to (AI AI); and that the name Hyacinth was given in the first instance to the plant which most distinctly exhibited them.’” (Ellis on Cat. LXI. 89, where is mentioned a figure of the flower found in the Vienna MS. of Dioscorides). See Appendix.

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