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fata, ‘prophecy,’ the record of destiny. Thus Carmentis in Latium foretells the rise of Rome, Fast.I. 523, “victa tamen vinces eversaque Troia resurges”. So when the fugitives contravene destiny by making a settlement in Crete, they are warned by a pestilence to desist (706), and Aeneas learns in a dream that their destination is Italy ( Virg. Aen.III. 147-71). sacra (cf. 454 n.) are the “effigies sacrae divom Phrygiique Penates”, who make the above-mentioned revelation to Aeneas. sacra altera. Cf. Fast.I. 527, ib. IV. 38. Notice the use of the plural of Anchises only. Cf. 108 n., 376 n. ab Antandro, on the coast below Mt. Ida ( Virg. Aen.III. 6), where the fugitives built their ships. scelerata . . . Thracum. Ovid passes thus briefly over the incidents related by Virgil of the settlement in Thrace, having already introduced the story of Polydorus, which in the Aeneid is told in connection with their departure.
utilibus, ‘prospering.’ Tennyson has given somewhat of the same force to our corresponding word in ‘the useful trouble of the rain.’ So Milton, P. l. II. 259, ‘great things of small, useful of hurtful, prosperous of adverse, we can create.’ aestu secundo, ‘a following tide.’ Cf. 418 n., 728. Gierig takes this of the wind, comparing Virg. Aen.X. 687, “labitur alta secans fluctuque aestuque secundo”, where Heyne suggests the same meaning, but adds ‘usu tamen grammatico fluctus est ex vento; aestus motus maris ex natura sua.’ Cf. Her.XXI. 42, “propellit Boreas, aestus et unda refert”.
Apollineam urbem. When Latona was about to give birth to Apollo and Diana, and the whole world was closed against her by the jealousy of Juno, she found refuge outside the world in the floating island of Delos. Cf. VI. 188-91. “nec caelo nec humo nec aquis dea vestra recepta est: exsul erat mundi, donec miserata vagantem ‘hospita tu terris erras, ego’ dixit ‘in undis’ instabilemque locum Delos dedit.” The island was made secure either to two neighbouring islands ( Virg. Aen.III. 76), or to the bottom of the sea (whence it gained a supposed immunity from earthquakes, of which only two were recorded as felt in it), and became a chief seat of the worship of Apollo. Ruins of the great temple still exist, as well as fragments of the colossal statue dedicated by the Naxians. The town was at the foot of Mt. Cynthus, which probably served as acropolis. There is a similar account of a visit to Delos in Her.XXI. 91-102.
Anius, son of Apollo, to whose service he was consecrated by his mother Rhoeo. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 80. quo . . . colebatur, ‘by whose sovereignty men were swayed, and Phoebus by his ministry duly served.’ Colebatur, though it completes the grammatical structure of both clauses, belongs in sense only to Phoebus, an instance of the brachylogy called zeugma, for which see Kennedy, P.S.l.G. § 61 n., and cf. Juv.xv. 81, “ardenti decoxit aeno aut verubus”, where Mayor cites Fl.viii. 254, “pars verubus, pars undanti despumat aeno”. So is probably to be taken Virg. Aen.III. 260, “nec iam amplius armis, sed votis precibusque iubent exposcere pacem”, where see Henry. Sometimes the verb suits both clauses, but in different senses, especially in the literal and metaphorical, as in Virg. Aen.I. 264, “moresque viris et moenia ponet”, a figure called syllepsis. The harshness of zeugma is of necessity much more noticeable in a modern language, in which the written form so largely predominates: in Latin and Greek the transition from letter to spirit was continuous and gradual, and the structure of the sentence as a whole (though not the inflection of an individual word) asserted itself less than with us. This accounts for the prevalence in both languages of constructions “κατὰ σύνεσιν”, which in English are carefully avoided, such as that of plural verb where grammatically there is only one subject in the singular (no reference is made to the use of collectives), as in IV. 735, “litora cum plausu clamor superasque deorum implevere domos”. (See Roby, §§ 1437-8, and Drakenborch on Liv.xxi. LX. 7). For the expression of agency by an ablative of attendant circumstance (see 442 n.), of. 635, I. 747, “nunc dea linigera colitur celeberrima turba”, and see Munro in Mayor's Juvenal on I. 13. Merkel, while printing homines, suggests fides, from which hnes might easily arise, comparing for the union of abstract and concrete XIV. 109.
duas stirpes, an olive and a palm (vi. 335, “incumbens cum Palladis arbore palmae”), of which the latter was still one of the sights of Delos in the time of Cicero (de Legg. I. i. 2). Cf. Ellis on Cat.xxxiv. 8.
For this sacrifice cf. Virg. Aen.III. 118-20.
positis altis, ‘piled high,’ the adj. being proleptic.
munera Cerealia, ‘the gift of Ceres,’ bread. So the singular is used X. 74, Cereris sine munere. Baccho, ‘wine,’ as in VI. 488, Bacchus in auro ponitur. So Ceres is used for the standing corn, Amor. I. xv. 12, “cadet incurva falce resecta Ceres”, for the grain, Fast.II. 539, “inque mero mollita Ceres”, for bread, Virg. Aen.I. 701, Cereremque canistris expediunt, Vulcanus for fire, VII. 104, “adamanteis Vulcanum naribus efflant aeripedes tauri”, and so Mulciber, IX. 263, Vesta, Fast. VI. 291, “nec tu aliud Vestam quam vivam intellege flammam”. Sometimes an epithet is transferred to the god from that which is under his protection; thus in VIII. 664, “sincerae baca Minervae”, and in Virg. Aen.VIII. 409, “tenui Minerva”, the epithets possibly belong to the fruit (as contrasted with the pickled cornels of the next line) and to the thread, and in IV. 33, “intempestiva Minerva” is the ill-timed spinning which detains the Minyeides from the festival of Bacchus. Cf. Liv. III. lxii. 8 (of cavalry serving as infantry), “suo alienoque Marte pugnare”, and 653, 707 n., 875 n. Ovid plays upon this use in a curious way in XI. 125, “miscuerat puris auctorem muneris” (sc. Bacchum) undis, XII. 614 (of Achilles armed by Vulcan and burned on the funeral pyre), “armarat deus idem, idemque cremarat”. Lucretius, who himself adopts the usage, remarks upon it in II. 652-4, where see Munro.
cum . . . vidi. In Virg. Aen.III. 82, Anius veterem Anchisen adgnoscit amicum, and Servius has a note: “ad Anium Anchises ante Troicum bellum consultum venerat, an Salamina peteret comes Priamo”.
niveis . . . vittis. Cf. Virg, l.c., “vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro”.
natorum, ‘children,’ the masc. including the fem., as in 717 n., III. 132, “soceri tibi Marsque Venusque”. The received narrative makes Anius the father by Dorippe (not Dryope, as in Smith's Dict. Biog. and Myth.) of three daughters only, called Oeno, Spermo, and Elais, from their respective powers. But there was a legend of a son of Anius named Thasus or Trasus, referred to in Ibis, 478, as having been killed by the dogs of the temple of Latona, whence it was subsequently forbidden to keep dogs in Delos (see Ellis ad loc.).
auxilium, sc. fert.
Andros, the most northerly of the Cyclades, southeast of Euboea.
Delius, Apollo. augurium, ‘prophecy,’ the power of divination, as in Virg. Aen.XII. 394, “augurium citharamque dabat”.
femineae stirpi. Cf. 529. voto . . . fideque, ‘great beyond wish or thought.’
laticem...Minervae, ‘juice of the hoary olive,’ the allusion being to the grey colour of the back of the leaf, which is very noticeable when seen from below or on windy days. Cf. Her.XI. 67, “ramis albentis olivae”.
usus, ‘profit.’ Cf. XIV. 268.
ne . . . putes. This is his purpose in telling the tale R. § 690, Roby, § 1660. Cf. XIV. 16 n.
alant, Roby, § 1606, R. § 672.
duabus natis, dat. R. § 476. Observe natis a feminine: the form natabus was little used, Roby, § 368.
miles, soldiers of the Greek army. Cf. 253 n.
pietas, ‘affection,’ the love of Andros for his sisters. consortia pectora, i.e. his sisters. Corpora should have been printed, the reading of M followed by Korn, Ehwald, and Zingerle. Both expressions are found, as in 616, VI. 498, “cognata pectora”.
timido . . . fratri, ‘one can forgive the brother's fears.’ The subjunctive may be referred, as in 685, to Roby, § 1544, R. § 646, Madv. § 370. Here, however, it might also be referred to Roby, § 1536, R. § 644, as side by side with the use of the indicative in possum and in expressions generally of capacity and quality (Roby, §§ 1529, 1535, 1566, cf. 17, 72) is found the use of the subjunctive. Sometimes this use may indicate, as Roby says, that ‘this very lawfulness or power, etc., is itself only conditional,’ as in Liv.xxii. LX. 7, “quid enim aliud quam admonendi essetis”, where it depends on the previous condition, “si tantum modo postulassent legati”, or may follow some general principle, as in Cat. m. III. § 7, “qui mihi non id videbantur accusare quod esset accusandum” (Roby, § 1680, R. § 704), but often it seems to be due only to the general tendency to speak vaguely and hypothetically. A remarkable instance of this is in Liv. XLIV. xxvii. 4-6, “quae manus...Perrhaebiae saltum in Thessaliam traducta, non agros tantum nudare populando potuit, sed ipsas exscindere urbes. ipsis quoque Romanis de se cogitandum fuisset: quando neque manere amissa Thessalia...potuissent, neque progredi”. In each case the power depends on the hypothetical condition (“si traducta esset”) expressed in the participle, yet in one the indicative is used, in the other the subjunctive. So there seems to be no difference of meaning between the two expressions in de Off. III. xxv. § 94, “quanto melius fuerat in hoc promissum patris non esse servatum”, and Cat. m. XXIII. § 82, “nonne melius multo fuisset otiosam et quietam aetatem sine ullo labore et contentione traducere?”
665, hic, ‘here,’ in this crisis, or ‘there,’ at Andros. Neither the pronoun nor the adverb is limited to what is near the speaker. So in the oracle given at Delos, Virg. Aen.III. 97, hic (in Italy) “domus Aeneae cunctis dominabitur oris”. See Wagner, Quaest. Virgil. xx. xxiii.
per quos ... annum. Cf. Virg. Aen.XII. 288-90, and IX. 154, where Turnus makes the same statement of Hector only, and by way of depreciating the prowess of the Greeks.
pater, a common salutation to gods, as mater to goddesses (cf. 588 n.). So Bacchus is called, XI. 132, Lenaeus pater, IV. 15, Eleleus parens, Ars Amat. I. 567, Nyctelius pater. In this sense, and not merely in that of pater patriae, the term is applied to Augustus, Ars Amat. I. 203, Marsque pater Caesarque pater, date numen eunti, nam deus e vobis alter es, alter eris (where the second line explains the application of the same title to Augustus as to Mars), Ex Pont. IV. xiii. 25.
coniugis, Venus. Cf. XIV. 597. in volucres abiere, ‘passed to birds,’ became birds, a use fully illustrated in the lexicons. So redire in is used of a metamorphosis reversed, as in XIV. 766, IV. 231, “in veram rediit faciem solitumque nitorem”, IX. 431 (of becoming young again), Iolaus in annos quos egit rediit.
convivia implerunt. Cf. VII. 661, “talibus atque aliis longum sermonibus illi implevere diem”.
mensa remota, ‘dinner done.’ The phrase originated in the older practice of setting a table before each guest ( Apud antiquos mensas ipsas apponebant pro discis, Serv. on Aen.p. 220), but mensa, like “τράπεζα”, came to be used of the food. Cf. Virg. Aen.I. 216, where Aeneas and his companions are eating seated on the grass. Henry ( Aeneidea, vol. I. p. 838) cites the corresponding Italian phrase ‘levare le mense,’ and the Spanish ‘poner la mesa.’
oracula, in its proper sense of ‘place of utterance,’ as in cenaculum, cubiculum, deverticulum, hibernaculum, receptaculum. Verbals with this suffix are not diminutives, Kennedy, P.S.l.G. § 59, i.v. note 1. p. 248.
Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 96, “antiquam exquirite matrem”, where the prayer of Aeneas, the answer of the god, and its misinterpretation by Anchises as referring to Crete are given at length.
prosequitur, ‘attends,’ ‘escorts,’ “προπέμπει”, often used of complimentary attendance, as of attendance at funerals, Trist. I. viii. 14 (where Ovid speaks of his departure from Rome), “nec exequias prosequerere meas”. Cf. Virg. Aen.VI. 897, “his ubi tum natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam prosequitur dictis”. In this metaphorical sense it is used of the favourable wind which helps them on their way from Delos, ib. III. 130, “prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntis”. dat munus. The giving of presents at parting, and especially of presents with a pedigree, is in the heroic style. Cf. Virg. Aen.I. 647-55 Aen., III. 464-71, ib. 482-9 Aen., VII. 243-8, and see Mayor on Hom. Od.IX. 268.
sceptrum, the staff or baton which was a general sign of regal authority (as at Rome of consular the “scipio eburneus” of Liv.v. XLI. 9), especially when the king was acting as judge ( Virg. Aen.VII. 246, Hom. Il.I. 238), and the lifting up of which was a solemn pledge of truth, Arist. Pol.III. 14, “ὁ δ᾽ ὅρκος ἦν τοῦ σκήπτρου ἐπανάτασις” (cf. Hom. Il.X. 321). It was also borne by chiefs or by princesses, as Aeneas gives to Dido ( Aen.I. 653) a sceptrum which had belonged to Ilione, Priam's eldest daughter. Livy records the presentation of such with other gifts to Masinissa and Eumenes (xxx. XV. 11, XLII. xiv. 10). nepoti, Ascanius.
cratera, apparently of bronze with a chased rim of gold (700), just as Athenaeus (xi. 76-9) quotes and illustrates the description ( Il.XI. 631-6) of the cup of Nestor , itself of silver, ornamented with studs and other ornaments in gold. One variety of bronze, aes Corinthium, said to have been produced by accident in the conflagration which attended the capture of the city, 146 B.c., was a mixture of gold, silver, and copper, and from its rarity, or because it did not readily develop verdigris, was more highly valued than gold itself. For a similar gift see Virg. Aen.V. 535-8, and for the large size of such a bowl, ib. IX. 346, where Rhoetus hides himself behind one.
hospes, ‘friend,’ bound by ties of hospitality.Aoniis, Boeotian, the name belonging specially to a district about Thebes, where also was the river Ismenus.
Hyleus, a native of Hyle or Hylae in Boeotia.longo argumento, ‘with wealth of story,’ longo referring to the extent of the representation, as apparently does ingens in Virg. Aen.VII. 791.Conington there remarks that argumentum ‘seems to have been a technical term for historical and legendary subjects in art,’ comparing Prop.iv. IX. 13, “argumenta magis sunt Mentoris addita formae, at Myos exiguum flectit acanthus iter” (‘to the mould of Mentor groups are chief assigned, but Mys bids the acanthus wind on a narrow way,’ Postgate). Cf. Milt. P.l. VI. 84, ‘shields various, with boastful argument portrayed.’caelaverat, ‘had chased,’ ‘the object being roughly cast and then finished with the caelum or graver’ (Postgate on Prop. l.c.). The subject of the bas-reliefs on the cup is a legend of Thebes. Aonia was visited by a pestilence, which could be stayed only by the voluntary death of two maidens, who were found in Menippe and Metioche, daughters of Orion. These stabbed themselves with their shuttles, and from their ashes or from the earth (cf. 698 n.) sprang two youths, the Coronae, who, soaring to heaven, were there called “κόμηται”. At Orchomenus there was an annual festival of the dead, at which the maidens were invoked as “παρθένοι κορωνίδες”. The story is related by Antoninus Liberalis (xxv.).685-99. Such descriptions are common. See a list given by Ellis on Cat. LXIV. 50 (where the reference to Virg. Aen.VI. 250, should be V. 250), to which add VI. 70-128, where Minerva and Arachne contend in embroidery.septem portas, the distinctive glory of the Boeotian Thebes, as its hundred gates of the Egyptian. Both are so characterised in Homer, Il.IV. 406, “Θήβης ἕδος εἵλομεν ἑπταπύλοιο”, ib. IX. 383, “Θήβας Αἰγυπτίας...αἵ θ᾽ ἑκατόμπυλοί εἰσι”.
ignesque rogique, by hendiadys for ‘flaming pyres.’
For the reflexive use of the participles cf. 534 n.
flere videntur. For this life-like appearance of the Naiads cf. VI. 105-7 (of Europa figured in embroidery): “ipsa videbatur terras spectare relictas, et comites clamare suas, tactumque vereri adsilientis aquae, timidasque reducere plantas.”
nuda riget, ‘stands stiff and bare.’ But arbos is probably used collectively, as in Prop.iv. III. 13, “me Castalia speculans ex arbore”, ib. IV. 40, Tisiphones atro si furit angue caput. See Postgate, Select Elegies, p. xcvii., and cf. 716, 891, XIV. 598. Tennyson has similar uses: ‘there rolls the deep where grew the tree,’ ‘and numbs the Fury's ringlet snake.’
facit, ‘shows,’ the infinitives being best represented by participles, dare, ‘dealing,’ cecidisse, ‘fallen.’ The subject of facit is either Alcon, or the cup itself, according to a usage common in Propertius, for which see Hertzberg, Quaest. Propert. p. 154. It is not an ordinary use of the historic present, as it does not describe the act as in progress or narrate its performance (as in VI. 75, “stare deum pelagi, longoque ferire tridente aspera saxa facit”), but describes the details of the finished work. The two uses are distinguished in Propertius by Hertzberg, Quaest. Propert. p. 120, and by Postgate, Select Elegies, p. ex.693. The passage is very difficult and corrupt. According to Korn's reading (which the authority of T, one of Hellmuth's MSS., inclines Zingerle to approve) the two lines form one scene, iugulo contrasting with pectora and fortia corresponding to non femineum. Demissa tela of the shuttle (a use apparently not found elsewhere, though Haupt remarks on the wide use of the word) is a conjecture of Bentley for demisso telo. The Marcian codex has “agmen femineum iugulo dare vulnus aperto, illas dimisso per inertia vulnera telo”, from which Merkel (followed by Siebelis and Zingerle) reads hac, illac, serving to indicate the arrangement on the cup of two separate scenes (694 then belonging to the second scene, that of the funeral), and per inertia vulnere tela. For demisso vulnere he compares Hor. Epp.VII. v. 13, “vulnera parum demissa laxantem”, and for the structure of the line V. 436 Hor. Epp., VI. 217.Inertia tela is used of the radii, shuttles, as ‘inglorious weapons,’ just as in VII. 542, “leto moriturus inerti” of the warhorse dying by disease in his stall, and as in Virg. Aen.II. 364, “inertia corpora” are the dead who have died unresisting (see Henry ad loc.). For per tela in the sense of the instrumental ablative, cf. Prop.iv. IX. 26, with Postgate's note. Madvig (Adversaria Critica, vol. II. p. 92) keeps the reading of M, except in changing inertia to inerti, supporting agmen femineum, used of two persons only, by Virg. Aen.II. 212(of the two serpents,) agmine certo Laocoonta petunt, where the expression is otherwise understood. There is still a difficulty in the exact distribution of the scenes, Haupt referring the birth of the Coronae to the second scene, while Merkel, with more probability, makes tum introduce the third scene (just as it does the second in Virg. Aen.VI. 20). In either division incidents are grouped (ferri and exire, or exire and ducere), which are consecutive and not simultaneous, but this is probably a common feature in such descriptions, as in that of the two cities in Hom. Il.XVIII. 490-540.
celebri in parte, in a spot ‘where men most do congregate.’ Cf. Fast.VI. 478, “celeberrima ... area quae posito de bove nomen habet” (the Forum Boarium).
virginea favilla, the ashes of the maidens. Cf. Stat. Silv.II. 68(of the bronze referred to in 681 n.), “aeraque ab Isthmiacis auro potiora favillis”.
Coronas. Antoninus Liberalis, after Nicander and Corinna, gives a different account of the miracle: “Περσεφόνη δὲ καὶ Αἵδης οἰκτείραντες τὰ μὲν σώματα τῶν παρθένων ἠφάνισαν, ἀντὶ δ᾽ ἐκείνων ἀστέρας ἀνήνεγκαν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ˙ οἱ δὲ φάνεντες ἀνηνέχθησαν εἰς οὐρανὸν καὶ αὐτοὺς ὠνόμασαν ἄνθρωποι κομήτας”.
hactenus. Up to this point he has described the bronze work (681 n.). The age of such works of art, attested often by signs of wear or injury, was as important at Rome as with us. See Mayor on Juv.i. 76, especially Mart.viii. vi. as quoted there: Euctus has the identical crater thrown by the centaur Rhoecus, in evidence of which it is cracked, pugna debile cernis opus.
summus crater, ‘the rim of the bowl.’asper, ‘wrought,’ of raised work, as opposed to what was levis. Cf. XII. 235, “signis extantibus asper antiquus crater”.acantho, ‘and on the brim a traile of flowres of bearbrich gilded was,’ Golding. The acanthus mollis, as grown in Roman gardens ( Hor. Epp.V. vi. 16) and in our own (it is figured by Smee, My Garden, p. 233), is supposed to be a variety derived by cultivation from the original prickly acanthus spinosus. The names brank-ursine, bear's-breech, and bear's foot are translations from the Italian and German, and have reference to a resemblance between the leaf and the outspread foot of a bear. An accidental combination of acanthus leaves is said to have suggested to Callimachus the bell of the Corinthian capital, and they were much used as here and in embroidery (cf. Virg. Ecl.III. 45, Virg. Aen.I. 649). The acanthus (fem.) mentioned in Georg. ii. 119 is a tree identified with the acacia.
leviora, metaphorically, as we use ‘slighter.’ Cf. XIV. 197.
sacerdoti. ‘Because he was Apollo's priest they gave to him as then a chest to keepe in frankincense,’ Golding. His priestly character suggests the form of the present. For an instance where the same word is similarly in point, see Hor. C. III. iii. 32, with Wickham's note.custodem, with more feeling of the metaphor than in our corresponding use of ‘keeper.’ So with reference to the use of bay-branches at Rome (i. 562, Fast.III. 137-42) n. XV. xxx. 39 § 127, “laurus gratissima domibus ianitrix Caesarum pontificumque sola et domos exornat et ante limina excubat”.
coronam, a gift to him as king. Cf. Virg. Aen.I. 655, “duplicem gemmis auroque coronam”.
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