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inde, after leaving this place. Cf. 720 n. 722. So hinc is used, as in Virg. Aen.III. 551, where see Henry.

recordati, Cf. 678 n. Ovid does not specify the connection of Teucer with Crete, which he adopts from Virgil Aen.III. 104-9. The other legend which made Teucer a son of the river god Scamander was reconciled with this by representing Scamander also as an immigrant from Crete.

tenuere, ‘gained,’ or as we say, ‘made.’

Iovem, the sky and so the climate. Cf. 639 n. Ovid thus briefly passes over the incidents described at length by Virgil ( Aen.III. 137-91), the pestilence and drought, and the vision of Aeneas which renders unnecessary a second visit to the oracie. M has luem.

centum urbibus, Crete, called already in Homer ( Il.II. 649) “ἑκατόμπολις”. Cf. Hor. Epod.IX. 29, “centum nobilem Cretam urbibus”. The juxtaposition increases the emphasis which Ausonios gains from its position in advance of portus. The effect is to express the hopeful alacrity with which the fugitives turn their thoughts to Italy. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 189, “cuncti dicto paremus ovantes”.

optant, ‘pray.’ Cf. XIV. 35 n. The word implies the expression of the wish, either in prayer or request. See Henry on Virg. Aen.I. 176, Aeneidea, vol. I. p. 475. He quotes Sen. Ep.95, “saepe aliud volumus, aliud optamus, et verum ne diis quidem dicimus”, Nonius s.v. “optare est precibus aliquid a diis postulare”. Cf. XIV. 135-9 and 595, Tibull IV. vi. 15 “praecipit en natae mater studiosa, quod optet; illa aliud tacite clam sibi mente rogat”.

hiems, a storm lasting three days, Virg. Aen.III. 192-208. Cf. XIV. 481, and the similar use of “χειμών”.

Strophadum, two small islands west of Messenia, south of Zacynthus, to which the Harpies were driven from Thrace by Zetes and Calais, who here turned back. The name is otherwise explained to mean the Drifting Islands, in accordance with the earlier name Πλωταί”.

Aëllo. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 209-69. Celaeno, another of the Harpies, utters the prophecy fulfilled ib. VII. 112-9.

Samon. Samos, generally called Same, was the chief city of Cephallenia, and the name is sometimes used as here for the whole island.

Neritias domos. Ovid, following Virgil Aen.III. 271, makes Neritos a separate island, but in Homer ( Od.IX. 21) it is a mountain in Ithaca. Cf. XIV. 563.

certatam, ‘contested,’ ‘striven for,’ a rare use for which cf. Liv.xxv. III. 14.So 720 regnata Amor. I. xv. 26, Roma triumphati dum caput orbis erat. Milt. P.l. X. 572, ‘not as man, whom they triumphed once lapsed.’ Apollo, Diana and Hercules disputed the possession of Ambracia in Epirus with its territory, and referred their dispute to Cragaleus, son of Dryops (the country about Ambracia is called Dryopis by Dicaearchus). After hearing their claims Cragaleus decided in favour of Hercules. Apollo in anger changed him to a rock, to which in later times the Ambraciots continued to present offerings.

versi . . . iudicis, ‘the rock that wears the semblance of the transformed judge.’ The rock is disguised under the human likeness, just as in XIV. 275 one flavour is hidden under another. Cf. 273 n. XIV. 80 and 759.

quae, sc. Ambracia, for the clause versique . . . iudicis does not interrupt the construction, a usage with which we may compare Hor. Sat.II. vi. 65, “ipse meique ante Larem proprium vescor”. Cf. 632 n. We have a somewhat similar idiom in Milton P. l. II. 917, ‘into this wild abyss the wary Fiend stood on the brink of Hell and look'd awhile,’ which Bentley strangely corrects into ‘look'd from the brink of Hell and stood awhile.’

Actiaco . . . nota, ‘famed for Actian Apollo,’ i.e. for the temple of Apollo at Actium. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 275, “formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo”, of the same temple first sighted by the Trojans. In XV. 716 Ovid fancifully develops this usage by substituting for Caieta (cf. 157 n.) in a list of names of places the description quam tumulavit alumnus. After the battle of Actium Octavianus enlarged the ancient temple, and reestablished with greater splendour the games attached to it. Virgil makes the Trojans visit the temple, and themselves celebrate games on the shore, Aen.iii. l.c. This temple on the strait could hardly be said to have conferred fame on Ambracia inside the gulf and on the opposite coast. The remaining inhabitants of the town were also removed by Octavianus to Nicopolis, which he founded in honour of the victory. For ab cf. 105 n.

vocalem sua quercu, ‘vocal with its native oaks.’ For the collective use of quercus cf. 691 n. Oracles were given at Dodona by the whispering leaves of oak-trees, the “προσήγοροι δρύες” of P. v. 832. Another version of the story represented the oracles as delivered from the trees by the cry of two doves, which by a third version are rationalised as two women, Herod.ii. 54-7. In Virgil Aeneas does not visit Dodona, but Dionysius (i. 5) makes him leave his ships at Buthrotum and go to Dodona from there.

Chaonios sinus, ‘Chaon's gulf.’ The country was said to have been named after the Trojan Chaon by Helenus, who had caused his death. See Virg. Aen.III. 335.

nati, three sons and a daughter. Cf. 645 n. The name of the king was Munichus. His house was attacked by robbers, who being resisted fired it, and his children, his wife and himself were transformed by Jupiter to birds to save them from the flames (Anton. Liber. xiv.).

inrita, ‘ineffectual,’ used proleptically of the fire which was cheated of its prey. This is Heinsius' conjecture. M has inita, MSS. generally impia.

subiectis pennis, ‘on sudden (new-created) wings,’ the participle referring to the action of divine power in supplying the wings, and having much the same force as subitis (cf. 617 n.). Cf. Virg. Aen.II. 235(of putting the Trojan horse on wheels) “pedibusque rotarum subiciunt lapsus”. [I suspect a corruption: the obvious word is subitis. Perhaps tam fell out after -ta of irrita. R. E.]

Phaeacum, the Phaeacians, inhabitants of the Homeric Scheria, which was identified by general tradition with Corcyra ( Thuc.i. 25). Ulysses after leaving Calypso's island was hospitably entertained by their king Alcinous, to whom he related his previous adventures ( Hom. Od.ix.—xii.), and by whom he was afterwards conveyed to Ithaca. There is reference here to the famous gardens of Alcinous, described Od.VII. 112-32.

felicibus, ‘goodly.’ The word originally means ‘fruitbearing,’ but is specially used as an epithet of the nobler trees (as perhaps here) or of their fruit, as in XIV. 627. Cf. Virg. Aen.II. 649(of Achaemenides, cf. XIV. 216) “victum infelicem bacas lapidosaque corna”.

ab his, ‘next after these,’ a common expression in Ovid Cf. III. 273, IV. 329 and 612, IX. 764, VI. 63 ab imbre, Liv.xxii. XL. 4, “ab hoc sermone profectum Paullum tradunt”, id. XLIV. xxxiv. 6, “ab his praeceptis contionem dimisit”, id. VII. ii. 8 (where the idea of abandoning is prominent) “qui ab saturis ausus est primus argumento fabulam serere”. With this temporal sense is easily combined the idea of causation, of which many examples occur in Livy, as I. i. 4 and 5, II. lxv. 7, “iam inde ab infelici pugna castrisque amissis ceciderant animi”, V. xliv. 6, “ab secundis rebus magis etiam solito incauti”. For the same use in Propertius see Hertzberg, Quaest. Propert. p. 134. Cf. 105 n.

regnata. Cf. 713 n.

vati Phrygio, Helenus. Cf. 99 n. The visit to Buthrotum is given at great length by Virgil, Aen.III. 294-505.

simulata Troia, ‘mimic Troy’ (King), with its Simois, Xanthus, Scaean gate and Pergama, Virg. Aen.III. 302 and 349. With the same feeling Aeneas had named his settlements in Thrace (ib. 18) and Crete (ib. 133). Notice that simulata means ‘made in a likeness,’ as in Virg. Aen.III. 349, “simulataque magnis Pergama”. Cf. XIV. 765 n., Shakespeare, Hamlet, III. iv. 54, ‘the counterfeit presentment of two brothers,’ Milton P.l. II. 510, ‘with pomp supreme and godlike imitated state.’ Cf. similar uses of mentior, as XI. 253.

tenetur. Cf. 706 n.

futurorum certi, ‘certifide of things to come’ Golding. For this use (‘informed of what would be,’ not ‘confident of their destiny’) cf. VI. 268, “tam subitae matrem certam fecere ruinae”, XI. 415, “consilii tamen ante sui . . . certam te facit”. So perhaps may be explained the difficult passage Virg. Aen.IV. 110, fatis incerta, ‘uninformed by prophecy,’ the emphasis on fatis being accounted for by the opposition to the other way of ascertaining the will of Jupiter, by inquiry to be made of him by Juno.

Sicaniam. Ovid omits all description of the voyage to Italy, the landing at Castrum Minervae, and the passage along the coast, Virg. Aen.III. 506-53.

pinnis ‘spines,’ or perhaps ‘fins,’ a sense which is confined to the form pinna. Cf. 963, III. 678.

aequoris expertem. Cf. 293 n.

hac, near Pelorus, which in V. 350 is called from its nearness to Italy Ausonius, Zancle or Messana being a little below this narrowest part of the strait. In Virgil the fugitives do not so closely approach the strait, and land at nightfall near the foot of Aetna, as Ulysses had done previously. Here on the next morning they meet with Achaemenides, an incident which Ovid introduces subsequently, XIV. 160. Cf. XIV. 75 n.

730. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 420, “dextrum Scylla latus, laevum implacata Charybdis obsidet”, where both are more fully described, as is Scylla, XIV. 60 sqq.

carinas. Cf. XIV. 534 n.

succingitur. Cf. Virg. Ecl. VI. 75,candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris”. Mr. King translates: ‘the zone of ravenous dogs that belts her horrible waist.’

si non cet. Cf. XV. 282, “nisi vatibus omnis eripienda fides”.

repetens suspiria, ‘heaving deep sighs.’

genus . . . virorum, ‘a gentle race of suitors.’ Virgo and viri connote humanity and contrast the mortal Scylla and her human suitors with the goddess Galatea and the monstrous Cyclop. For vir thus used cf. XIV. 834 n.

facis, as in XIV. 491, in a usage which approximates to our use of ‘do’ as an auxiliary verb.

negare, ‘refuse,’ ‘say no.’ Cf. Ars Amat. I. 345, “quae dant quaeque negant, gaudent tamen esse rogatae”.

caerula. Cf. 288 n.

Doris, sister and wife of Nereus, daughter of Oceanus and Thetis.

turba, merely of their number, without any idea of their assemblage. Cf. VI. 219, where turba rotarum means ‘the passage of many wheels,’ or ‘the frequent passage of wheels. The Nereids were fifty in number.

per luctus, ‘with mourning,’ per expressing circumstance or necessary condition.

Cyclopis, ‘of a Cyclop,’ one of the Cyclopes, described in Hesiod as Titans, three in number, who supplied Jove with his thunderbolts (cf. I. 259, G. IV. 170-5), in Homer as lawless and impious shepherds (761, 857), localised subsequently in Sicily (as here and Virg. Aen.III. 641-6, where they number a hundred or more), and by later tradition described as skilled artificers, assistants of Vulcan. The first and third forms of the legend are combined in Virg. Aen.VIII. 416-53. The Cyclopes of Hesiod are sons of Heaven and Earth, but Polyphemus, who belongs to the pastoral form of the legend, is son of Neptune, and all, like Fame ( Virg. Aen.IV. 195), Charon (ib. VI. 304) and the Harpies (ib. III. 252 and 262) rank as divine beings.

marmoreo, white as marble, as in III. 481. So ebuneus, III. 422, cereus, Hor. C. I. xiii. 2 seem to express colour only, like niveus and lacteus ( Virg. Aen.VIII. 660). In II. 536 is the combination “niveis argentea pennis ales”.

pollice. Cf. IX. 395, “lacrimas admoto pollice siccat”.

Crataeide, sc. Scylla. Her parentage is variously given.

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