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Fauno. Faunus was a rustic Italian deity, subsequently identified with the Greek Pan, but also rationalised into an old king of Latium, son of Picus, grandson of Saturnus (xiv. 320 and 449), and father of Latinus, who consults his oracle at Albunea ( Virg. Aen.VII. 48 and 82). Although Faunus was conceived as an individual, the name is also applied to a class of divine beings, as is the case with Pan (xiv. 638), Silvanus (i. 193) and Silenus, and in this plural form Virgil Aen.VIII. 314) speaks of the indigenae Fauni as inhabiting before the coming of Saturn the country which was subsequently called Latium, “his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris” (ib. 323) Cf. XIV. 456 n.

Symaethide, daughter of Symaethus, a river rising in central Sicily and flowing south of Aetna.

uni, to the exclusion of all others. We should perhaps express the same thing adverbially by ‘wholly.’

octonis iterum, sc. sixteen, a form of expression which seems to differ from that in VIII. 243, natalibus actis bis senis in that the adverb attaches itself more closely to the verb (‘completed a second time’).

signarat . . . malas. Cf. IX. 389, “dubiaque tegens lanugine malas”, where is the same poetical use of a transitive verb to express an involuntary process.

dubia, faint, hardly perceptible.

nulla cum fine, ‘unceasingly,’ as fine nullo is used Ex. Pont. I. i. 74 (where notice the variation of gender).

quaesieris. On the quantity see R. § 281. This use of the perfect subjunctive is equivalent to that of the Greek aorist.

praesentior, ‘more powerful.’ So IV. 612, “tanta est praesentia veri”. The same development of meaning from the literal sense (825, XIV. 123) may be noticed in instans and instantia. Perhaps we may compare the transition of ‘handsome’ from its original meaning of ‘handy,’ habilis.

edam, ‘I could tell.’

pro. Cf. 5.

Venus alma. Cf. XIV. 478. The epithet was so commonly applied to Venus that there was a street at Rome called “almae Veneris vicus”. See Munro on Lucr.i. 2.

nempe, as we use ‘actually,’ ‘positively, ‘I assure you.’

hospite, ‘stranger.’

contemtor Olympi. Cf. 857, Hom. Od.IX. 275-6: “οὐ γὰρ Κύκλωπες Διὸς αἰγιόχου ἀλέγουσιν οὐδὲ θεῶν μακάρων, ἐπεὶ πολὺ φέρτεροί εἰμεν.” But the Cyclopes try to quiet Polyphemus in his agony by reminding him (ib. 411), “νοῦσον γ᾽ οὔπως ἔστι Διὸς μεγάλου ἀλέασθαι”.

valida. The epithet is used of overpowering passion also in XIV. 352.

tibi. Apostrophe (R. § 947) is a common device in Ovid, especially where it relieves the monotony of an enumeration, as in Fast.IV. 435-40 Fast., 467-70 Fast., 499-502. It is still more common in Propertius: see Hertzberg, Quaest. Propert. VI. ii. § 3; Postgate, Select Elegies, p. xcvii.

rigidos, stiff. Cf. 846. So the word is used of the hair standing up after being cut short, “nec male deformet rigidos tonsura capillos”, Ars Amat. I. 517.

rastris, ‘a rake.’ But this tool had only two or four prongs, and resembled in use our hoe, except that being heavy it performed harder work in breaking up the soil, and was besides a digging instrument, so rendered in Greek by “σκαπάνη”. A similar tool, though with undivided blade, is called in Devonshire a dig-axe. Ovid has forgotten that the Cyclopes possessed no tools. Cf. XIV. 2 n.

in aqua. Cf. 840 n.

componere, so as to give a pleasing expression.

vultus, the appropriate term for the face as expressing emotion and character (cf. 350, 478, XIV. 272), not used, except in poetry, of inanimate objects or the lower animals. The Romans connected it with voluntas. Cf. Cic. de Legg. i. IX. 27.

cessant, ‘have pause,’ not ‘cease.’ The difference may be illustrated by the corresponding change of meaning from perpetuus, ‘unbroken’ to ‘perpetual’ in the sense of ‘everlasting.’

Telemus. In Homer ( Od.IX. 508-10) Polyphemus recollects the prophecy after he has been blinded, and accounts for the negligence which had aided its fulfilment: “ἀλλ᾽ αἰεί τινα φῶτα μέγαν καὶ καλὸν ἐδέγμην ἐνθαδ᾽ ἐλεύσεσθαι, μεγάλην ἐπιειμένον ἀλκήν, νῦν δέ μ᾽ ἐὼν ὀλίγος τε καὶ οὐτιδανὸς καὶ ἄκικυς ὀφθαλμοῦ ἀλάωσεν, ἐπεί μ᾽ ἐδαμάσσατο οἴνῳ.” Cf. Theocr. VI. 23, Ibis 270.

Telemus Eurymides. For the repetition of the name in epic style with additional particulars cf. V. 129, XII. 172, XIV. 224, Virg. Aen.VI. 164.

fefellerat. The bird is said fallere (cf. 462 n.), to escape the augur, when he omits to read the omen it gives.

altera, ‘another.’ Cf. XIV. 378.

rapuit. Cf. Amor. II. xix. 19, “quae nostros rapuisti nuper ocellos”.

degravat. So the noise of the giants' footsteps terrifies Achaemenides, Virg. Aen.III. 648.

acumine. Words of this form are particularly common in Ovid. Of the following, cacumen, examen, flamen, (n.), fundamen, gestamen, levamen, stramen, velamen, volumen, there are eighty-three examples in Ovid against thirty-two in Virgil, while Ovid uses eighty-four times acumen, conamen, curvamen, foramen, lenimen, medicamen, molimen, nutrimen, stamen, which do not occur in Virgil. Other examples are temptamen (19), munimen (212), caelamen (291), firmamen (x. 491), hortamen (i. 277), revocamen (ii. 596).

huc. Cf. Theocr. XI. 17.

secutae. Cf. Theocr. XI. 12, “πολλάκι ταὶ ὄϊες ποτὶ τωὔλιον αὐταὶ ἀπῆνθον χλωρᾶς ἐκ βοτάνας”. The sheep continue to follow him in his blindness, Virg. Aen.III. 660, “lanigerae comitantur oves; ea sola voluptas solamenque mali”.

pinus, not a staff of pine-wood (as we use ‘blackthorn,’ and as the Pelias hasta is called in XII. 122, fraxinus), but a whole tree. The wood is from Virgil, Aen.III. 659, “trunca manu pinus regit et vestigia firmat”, its size from Hom. Od.IX. 322, “ὅσσον θ᾽ ἱστὸν νηὸς ἐεικοσόροιο μελαίνης”, where it is of olive-wood. Ulysses cuts off a fathom of it for the attack upon the giant. For the same image used by Milton see Par. Lost, I. 292-4, and cf. ib. 927, ‘his sail-broad vans he spread for flight.’

harundinibus centum. The usual number was seven; “dispar septenis fistula cannis”, II. 682. The surroundings of the giant are not gigantic, and the needful size is given by increasing the number of reeds to a hundred.

pastoria, not ‘pastoral,’ but with the force noticed on 533, describing Polyphemus as a shepherd, and connecting his minstrelsy with his occupation.

latitans rupe, ‘hidden by the cliff,’ an ablative which combines the uses we distinguish as local and instrumental. See R. § 489, Roby, § 1174, and cf. V. 628, “vepre latens”, Virg. Aen.X. 361, “haeret pede pes densusque viro vir”, where see Conington.

The song of the giant is marred by the tasteless accumulation of images in these lines, which contrast unfavourably with the opening lines in Theocritus (xi. 19-24).

folio, of the petal as in 398. So in III. 509, the narcissus is described, “croceum . . . florem inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis”.

ligustri, generally identified with the privet, though the colour of the flower hardly justifies its collocation in Martial I. cxvi., “loto candidior puella cygno argento nive lilio ligustro”.

vitro. See Becker's Gallus, Eng. Tr.pp. 303 Tr., 373.

lascivior, ‘more frolicsome.’ Cf. Theocr. XI. 21, “μόσχω γαυροτέρα”.

adsiduo, ‘incessant’ or ‘ever present,’ just as in Liv.i. XX. 2adsiduus sacerdos” is a ‘resident priest.’ [Four of my Bodl. MSS. have assiduo, one asiduo. This is strong evidence against the other form adsiduo. R. E.]

solibus hibernis, ‘than sunny days in winter.’ For this use of soles not merely for ‘days’ but for ‘fine days’ cf. G. I. 393, “ex imbri soles et aperta serena prospicere”. So it is used of ‘days of exposure to sunlight’ as contrasted with the umbra of a studious life, Hor. Epp.IX. ii. 4, “nihil minus aptum arbitramur, cum arma vestra, cum castra, cum denique cornua, tubas, sudorem, pulverem, soles cogitamus”.

nobilior palma, ‘of more honour than the victor's palm.’ Cf. Hor Hor. C. I. i. 5, “palma nobilis”. Palma is a conjecture of Siebelis ˙ a Berlin MS. has palmis. Merkel retains the reading of M forma (inserting ac from conjecture), which he takes as nominative in the sense of ‘a beauty’ (as “κάλλος” is used), comparing IV. 676, “visae correptus imagine formae”, Prop.ii. V. 28, Cynthia forma potens. This may safely be pronounced impossible. Madvig (Advers. Crit. vol. II. p. 92) suggests mobilior dama. May not the very common confusion of fama flamma (at XIV. 726 Can.1 has flamma) point to the true reading? That is, flamma was first changed to fama, then to forma, the reading of M. ‘More nimble than flame.’ R.E. ] Ehwald retains the vulgate pomis, for which cf. 818.

matura uva, a variation on Theocr. XI. 21, “φιαρωτέρα ὄμφακος ὠμᾶς”.

lacte coacto, ‘junkets.’ Theoeritus (xi. 20) uses the same comparison for the colour, “λευκοτέρα πακτᾶς ποτιδεῖν”. The exact equivalent of lac coactum it is not easy to determine. Cf. 830; XIV. 274 n.

si non fugias, ‘if thou wouldst stay.’ See R. § 656. In Theocritus Galatea avoids the Cyclop only in sport, “καὶ φεύγει φιλέοντα, καὶ οὐ φιλέοντα διώκει”.

saevior . . . eadem, ‘yet wilder too,’ eadem ex pressing the union in one person of qualities like or unlike. Cf. XIV 93 n.

durior, ‘more heartless’ than the tree in its ‘stubborn hardihood.’

fallacior, ‘more tricksy.’ The comparison is with water as described in the epithet tenuis, with that penetrative power which makes it difficult to deny it ingress or egress. The same feeling is expressed in Theocr. XI. 22: “φοιτῇς δ᾽ αὖθ᾽ οὑτῶς, ὅκκα γλυκὺς ὕπνος ἔχῃ με οἴχῃ δ᾽ εὐθὺς ἰοῖς᾿, ὅκκα γλυκὺς ὕπνος ἀνῇ με.

lentior, ‘more lithe.’ The word seems to express the union of apparent weakness with real strength in the passive obstinacy of Galatea and the pliant toughness of the willow and bryony. For the two members of the comparison cf. Amor. III. vi. 59, “qui tenero lacrimas lentus in ore videt”, Virg. Aen.III. 31, “rursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen insequor”, and see Henry, Aeneidea, vol. II. pp. 446-50. For the vitis alba see the lexicon, s.v. ampeloleuce.

laudato. Cf. de Fac. Medic. 33, “laudatas homini volucris Iunonia pennas explicat, Ars Amat.” I. 627: “laudatas ostentat avis Iunonia pinnas: si tacitus spectes, illa recondit opes.

tribulis, thistles or caltrops. Cf. Virg. G. I. 152, “subit aspera silva lappaeque tribulique.Asper is frequently thus used of anger in living beings, as in XIV. 485.

feta ursa, ‘than mothering she-bear.’

surdior aequoribus, a proverbial image. Cf. P.v. 1001, Eur. Med.28, “ὡς δὲ πέτρος θαλάσσιος κλύδων ἀκούει νουθετουμένη φίλων”, Androm. 538, “τί με προσπίπτεις, ἁλίαν πέτραν κῦμα λιταῖς ὡς ἱκετεύων”, Hipp.304, “αὐθαδεστέρα γίγνου θαλάσσης”. It occurs several times in Ovid, as Her.VIII. 9, ib. XVIII. 211, Ars. Amat. I. 531, Rem. Am. 597. Cf. XIV. 711.

calcato hydro. Eurydice dies from the bite of a snake thus roused, X. 10, “occidit in talum serpentis dente recepto”, G. IV. 458, where it is called hydrus.

vellem possem. Cf. 462 n.

claris latratibus, poetically for the hounds in cry, as Virg. Aen.V. 257(of a scene represented in embroidery), “saevitque canum latratus in auras”.

vivo . . . saxo, ‘arched with living rock.’ Pendentia does not necessarily, like ‘overhanging’ or ‘suspended,’ suggest that the object spoken of is supported from above or from one side, but implies only the want of direct support from below. So it is used of the vault of heaven, pendentis caeli, VII. 580, of a roof supported on columns, “centum pendentia tecta columnis”, Mart.ii. XIV. 9, of the Pons Sublicius, pendente via, Sidon. Apoll. V. 70, of the water of an aqueduct, “innumero pendens transmittitur arcu”, Stat. Silv.I. v. 28.Used of similar formations seen from above it is equivalent to ‘hollow,’ as in H. N. II. 82. See Henry, Aeneidea, vol. I. pp. 465-70, whence I have taken these references.

vivo. Cf. XIV. 712 n.

poma, ‘fruits,’ said to include all fruits except such as grow in clusters, as grapes. Servius on Virg. Ecl.II. 53 says, “poma generaliter dicuntur omnia molliora”, but Pliny includes even fir-cones.

auro . . . uvae, white grapes.

autumnalia corna, a fruit the estimation of which varies. In Virg. Aen.III. 649, Achaemenides describes them, “victum infelicem, bacas lapidosaque corna”, and Dr. Henry confirms the accuracy of his description: ‘The cornus mascula (kornelkirsche) grows wild in Sicily, Italy, and even in Germany, at the present day. Its oblong, red, shining berries, consisting of little more than a mere membrane covering a large and hard stone, are sold in the streets of the Italian towns.’ Aeneidea, vol. II. p. 505.

generosa . . . ceras, ‘the noble kind that mocks new wax,’ yellow plums, which were more highly esteemed than purple, the cerea pruna of Virg. Ecl.II. 53.Cf. 457 n.

deerunt, a disyllable by synaeresis, R. § 944.

pecus. Cf. Theocr. XI. 34, “βοτὰ χίλια βόσκω”.

multae, of the individual sheep. Cf. Virg. Aen.VI. 58, “genus antiquum Terrae, Titania pubes, fulmine deiecti volvuntur”.

potes, you could if you would.

ut . . . uber, ‘see how their udders ful do make them straddle,’ Golding.

par aetas, abstract for concrete, as in Liv.iv.Ix. 8, “a patribus conlaudari, et a militari aetate tanquam bonos cives adspici”.

829-30. Cf. Theocr. X. 35-7, Virg. Ecl.II. 22.

pars . . . partem. Cf. Hom. Od.IX. 246-9.

liquefacta coagula. Cf. XIV. 274 n.

deliciae, ‘pets.’ Cf. Cat. II. 1, Passer deliciae meae puellae.

faciles, easily won and so of slight value, just as the danger incurred commends the gift in 836 and Virg. Ecl.II. 40, “duo, nec tuta mihi valle reperti, capreoli”. Cf. X. 602, “quid facilem titulum superando quaeris inertes”.

cacumine, of a tree-top, as in VI. 705.

qui . . possint, like the pet lion cub in Aesch. Ag.717-26, “ἅμερον, εὐφιλόπαιδα, καὶ γεραροῖς ἐπίχαρτον”. But the present is such as might be expected from a Cyclop.

catulos ursae. Cf. Theocr. XI. 41, “σκύμνως τέσσαρας ἄρκτων”.

certe . . . novi, ‘I know myself at least.’ Cf. Theocr. VI. 34-7, Virg. Ecl.II. 35-6.

imagine, ‘mirror,’ as in Virg. Ecl.II. 27.

844. Cf. 744 n., and for nescio quem, which is of course contemptuous, R. § 755. Here and in 857 Ovid is following Eur. Cycl.320: “Ζηνὸς δ᾽ ἐγὼ κεραυνὸν οὐ φρίσσω, ξένε οὐδ᾽ οἶδ᾽ τι Ζεύς ἐστ᾽ ἐμοῦ κρείσσων θεος.

torvos, of a serious and earnest look, as in Hor. C. III. v. 44 (of Regulus), “virilem torvus humi posuisse voltum”. So in XV. 586 of the countenance of Cipus resolved to go into exile rather than fulfil the prophecy that he would be king of Rome.

845. Cf. Theocr. XX. 21-3: “καὶ γὰρ ἐμοὶ τὸ πάροιθεν ἐπάνθεεν ἁδύ τι κάλλος ὡς κισσὸς ποτὶ πρέμνον, ἐμὰν δ᾽ ἐπύκαζεν ὑπήναν, χεῖται δ᾽ οἷα σέλινα περὶ κροτάφοισι κέχυντο.

846. In Theocr. XI. 50 the giant proposes to burn off his shaggy covering: “αἰ δέ τοι αὐτὸς ἐγὼν δοκέω λασιώτερος ἦμεν, ἐντὶ δρυὸς ξύλα μοι, καὶ ὑπὸ σποδῶ ἀκάματον πῦ<*>.

corpora, of a single body. Cf. 108 n. Ibis, 412, corpora Cercyonea. Dräger, Historische Syntax, I. p. 6, compares “σώματα” in Soph. El. 1232.

turpe, ‘a blemish.’ Cf. Ars Amat. III. 249: “turpe pecus mutilum, turpis sine gramine campus, et sine fronde frutex, et sine crine caput.

flaventia, ‘ruddy.’ The colour is in point, as bay and chestnut horses were, together with grey, reckoned the handsomest. Cf. Virg. G. III. 81, honesti spadices glaucique. This was in accordance with the general preference of the Romans, as of the Greeks, for light hair, witnessed by the ascription of it to Minerva (ii. 749), Lucretia ( Fast.II. 763), Europa (ib. V. 609), Oenone ( Her.V. 122), Dido ( Virg. Aen.IV. 698). Cf. XIV. 97 n.

849. Ehwald, following Magnus , retains the line pluma tegit volucres, ovibus sua lana decori est, which, omitted in M and appearing in two forms in “ε” and h, has been rejected by most editors.

851. Cf. Theocr. XI. 30-3.

clipei. The image is taken from Callimachus, Hymn. in Dian. 52, “πᾶσι δ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ὄφρυν φάεα μουνόγληνα, σάκει ἴσα τετραβοείῳ”. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 637.Argolici clipei aut Phoebeae lampadis instar. In XV. 192, ipse Dei clipeus is used of the sun.

genitor meus, Neptune.

hunc . . . socerum. Cf. XIV. 375, IX. 14 (of Hercules), ille Iovem socerum dare se famamque laborum . . . referebat. Cf. 509 n.

tibi . . . uni, to thee, though to no one else, the first three words explaining supplicis, and uni asserting the Cyclop's independence.

penetrabile, ‘piercing.’ See R. § 379, Roby, § 876. The distinction between the so-called active and passive uses of these adjectives is little more than a difference of translation, the relation of the verbal notion contained in the adjective being in neither use defined as we necessarily define it in English. For the same word in the passive use cf. XII. 166, corpus nullo penetrabile telo, and for other instances of the active use, III. 358, resonabilis Echo, VI. 257, exitiabile telum, and see Munro on Lucr.i. 11. See also Trench, Select Glossary, s.v. awful, and cf. Milton, P.l. IX. 563, ‘how camest thou speakable of mute?’

Acin. He dwells upon his rival's name. Cf. Hor. C. I. xiii. 1,Telephi cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi laudas brachia”.

meis conplexibus Acin. Cf. 367 n.

placeat licebit, ‘he may please,’ a contemptuous concession. Cf. 18 n., 328.

quod nollem, ‘would that he did not,’ the tense referring as always to past time.

copia, ‘occasion,’ ‘opportunity.’ Cf. 330 n.

pro, ‘in proportion to.’

viscera. Cf. XIV. 194 n.

se misceat tibi, ‘let him be united to thee.’

laesus, ‘injured,’ a word not strictly carrying out the metaphor involved in the use of ignis for ‘love.

viribus, the fires of the volcano. Cf. Cat. LXVIII. 53, cum tantum arderem quantum Trinacria rupes.

nam . . . videbam, explaining the description of his movements which follows.

sit faciam, R. § 672.

Veneris, ‘love.’ Cf. 639 n.

debuit, as we colloquially use ‘was bound,’ like the French devait. Cf. XV. 662, quoted on 895. For the voice of the Cyclop cf. Hom. Od.IX. 395, Virg. Aen.III. 672-4.

vestris regnis, the waters, with reference to Symaethus and Galatea.

partem revulsam. Cf. Hom. Od.IX. 481(of the Cyclop throwing at Ulysses), “ἧκε δ᾽ ἀπορρήξας κορυφὴν ὄρεος μεγάλοιο”, ib. 537 (of his second throw), “πολὺ μείζονα λᾶαν ἀείρας ἧκ᾽ ἐπιδινήσας”. Virgil with exaggeration repeats the expression of heroic warriors, Aen.X. 128, haud partem exiguam montis, ib. 698 Aen., IX. 569.

e saxo. [Can.7 reads est with ex superscribed as a correction. The word corrected, est, proves ex not e to be right: not ‘out of,’ but ‘off,’ or ‘from,’ R.E. ]

per fata with fieri licebat, ‘without hindrance from,’ R. § 831, C. Cf. 233 n.

fecimus, ut, R. § 712 (b), Roby, § 1700.

vires avitas, ‘the quality (nature, powers) of his grandsire,’ the river Symaethus (750, n.).

temporis exiguum, R. § 522.

mora, ‘by slow degrees.’ Cf. I. 402 (of stones turning to men), mollirique mora, XV. 362, quaecumque mora (by ‘keeping’ as we say), fluidove calore corpora tabuerunt.

fracta dehiscit, ‘cracks and parts,’ Cf. 412 n. Fracta, for tacta of MSS. is due to Heinsius. [Can.7 has tacta corrected from tracta. May not tracta be right? ‘draws in and splits open,’ or perhaps ‘collapses and splits open.’ It is very difficult to imagine an original fracta becoming either tracta or tacta. R. E.]

harundo, ‘reeds.’ Cf. 691 n., XIV. 598.

media tenus alvo, to the waist, as in V. 413.

flexis cannis, ‘with wreath of reeds,’ the usual ornament of river deities. Cf. IX. 3, inornatos redimitus harundine crines, Fast.v. 637, Tibris harundiferum caput extulit, Virg. Aen.VIII. 34, Milton, Lycidas, 104.

nova, new-created. Cf. 406 n., XIV. 390, ib. 499.

cornua. River gods were represented as bull-headed, whence the epithets tauriformis, Hor. C. IV. xiv. 15, corniger, XIV. 602. See Conington on G. IV. 37, and cf. IX. 1. sqq.

maior. So of Hercules becoming a god, IX. 269, maiorque videri coepit, and cf. 962, XIV. 8, XV. 661, of Aesculapius passing into the serpent: “vertar in hunc, sed maior ero, tantusque videbor, in quantum verti caelestia corpora debent.” This increase of stature was characteristic also of apparitions; see Virg. Aen.II. 773(of Creusa), nota maior imago, Juv.xiii. 221, Tac. Ann.XI. 21.

caerulus. Cf. 288 n.

sic quoque, even thus metamorphosed.

antiquum, ‘former,’ the name he bore before his metamorphosis. The river Acis flows into the sea N. E. of Aetna.

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