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si di sunt, ‘if there be gods, as gods there are.’ But it is to be observed that the assertion is not involved by the form of the sentence, but only by the nature of its contents. Latin makes no distinction between a condition such as this, and one which is merely assumed for the sake of argument, as in Cic. Tusc.I. xi. 24, “nam si cor aut sanguis aut cerebrum est animus, certe, quoniam est corpus, interibit cum reliquo corpore; si anima est, fortasse dissipabitur; si ignis, exstinguetur; si est Aristoxeni harmonia, dissolvetur”. See R. § 641, Madv. § 332 and obs.

vana. English uses an adverbial expression, ‘in vain.’ R. § 452.

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