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Giganteis faucibus. Cf. V. 352,“degravat Aetna caput”. Under Sicily was buried the rebellious giant Typhoeus, or according to other authors Briareus or Enceladus (Virg. Aen. III. 578). Cf. 89 n.
arva in its strict sense of ‘ploughed land’ would be inappropriate, but the word, though it kept that sense, as in Hor. Epp.I. xvi. 2, was also used generally, as in I. 598 of woodland. Cf. Hom. Od.IX. 107: “θεοῖσι πεποιθότες ἀθανάτοισιν οὔτε φυτεύουσιν χερσὶν φυτὸν οὔτ᾽ ἀρόωσιν, ἀλλὰ τάγ᾽ ἄσπαρτα καὶ ἀνήροτα πάντα φύονται.”
nec . . . bubus, ‘owing nothing to yoked oxen.’ Cf. Ex Pont. IV. iv. 26.
liquerat, ‘had passed,’ as in the narrative of Ceres' journey, Fast.IV. 564.Euboicus. Cf. XIII. 905 n.
manu magna. Cf. XIII. 962 n. The action is of the hands in swimming.
herbiferos, ‘rich in simples,’ with special reference to the magic art of Circe. Cf. 266-70, VII. 224-33.
Sole satae Circes, of Circe, daughter of the sun-god Helios and the Oceanid Perse, Od.X. 138. Aeaea, the island in which she practised her sorceries, is in Homer (ib. 195) situated in the wonderland of the western Mediterranean. In Hesiod (Theog. 1011-3) Circe is already connected with Italy as mother of Latinus (a story apparently followed by Virg. Aen.XII. 164), and later tradition (cf. XIII. 744 n., Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, vol. I. p. 147 E.T.) identified the island with the promontory or peninsula of Circeii, said to have been originally separated from the mainland, and spoken of by Virgil himself as an island, Aen.III. 386.Here was a temple of Circe, of which perhaps some remains still exist, with a cup left behind by Ulysses, and the tomb of Elpenor (cf. 252 n.), and one of the caverns in the Monte Circello was as recently as the beginning of this century still regarded by the natives with superstitious terror as having been the abode of the enchantress (Bonstetten, quoted by Dr. Henry on Virg. Aen.VII. 11). See further details in Mayor's note on Od.X. 133.ferarum. Cf. 255 n.
dicta . . . salute. Cf. 271.
diva . . . miserere, ‘have pity, goddess, on a brother god.’ So Juno bids Vulcan cease from his attack on Xanthus ( Il.XXI. 379), “οὐ γὰρ ἔοικεν ἀθάνατον θεὸν ὧδε βροτῶν ἕνεκα στυφελίζειν”.
videar dignus, Roby, § 1626 with § 1552, R. § 676 c with 650.
neve . . . sit. Cf. 32 n.
pudor est, ‘it were shame.’
contempta qualifies the four substantives, but agrees with verba, Roby, § 1062. 4, R. § 446. Cf. Virg. Aen.VI. 809, crines incanaque menta. Cf. 446 n., and Wickham on Hor. C. i. II. 1.
sive . . . sive. This double conditional particle is most conveniently translated ‘if . . . or if?’carmine. Cf. XIII. 952.
move, ‘begin,’ as we use the phrase ‘put in motion,’ ore sacro (‘with awful lips’) defining the otherwise vague sense of move. See Henry on Virg. Aen.I. 262.expugnacior, ‘more compelling.’ The metaphorical sense is common in the verb, as in IX. 619, coepta expugnare.herba, in the collective sense noticed on XIII. 690.
temptatis, ‘tried,’ ‘proved,’ with the same accessory idea as the English equivalents. Cf. the similar use of conspectus (xiii. 794) and spectatus.
medeare mando, R. § 672.
fine . . . est, ‘nor would I make an end,’ opus est being used of what is desired. Ehwald approves the conjecture of F. Leos, frigore (the coldness of indifference, cf. Hor. Sat.II. i. 62).
flammis, the fire of love.
indicio paterno, ‘by her father's betrayal,’ Sol having betrayed to Vulcan the intrigue of Venus and Mars, as related in IV. 171-89. Venus had already taken revenge on himself, ib. 190, exigit indicii memorem Cythereia poenam.
melius sequerere, ‘you would better sue.’29. Notice that the two clauses are only repetitions of the idea already expressed in volentem. Cf. 23-4.
ultro, ‘for thyself,’ without effort; just as with the active it means ‘spontaneously,’ ‘of oneself,’ proprio motu. See Henry on Virg. Aen.II. 145, and cf. Eun.IV. vii. 42, novi ingenium mulierum: nolunt, ubi velis; ubi nolis, cupiunt ultro.certeque. [Certoque, Can.7, looks to me right: dignus eras ultro (poteras certoque) rogari, ‘you deserved to be solicited unasked; you might have been, I am sure,’ whereas certeque, the ordinary reading, ‘at any rate you might have been,’ is an anticlimax, R. E.], especially as it must be referred to Scylla, who might well have accepted him, though she would not. If certo is read, Circe will be alluding to her own sudden passion for Glaucus. For the distinction between the two forms see Kennedy, P.S.l.G. § 88, and for the tense of eras, XIII. 222 n.
dederis, R. § 609.
neu dubites. This and the following clause should be referred to the final subjunctive (R. § 690, Roby, § 1660), expressing the purpose of the declaration made in 33. Cf. XIII. 271 n. and 656 n., Wickham's notes on Hor. C. I. xxxiii. 1, IV. ix. 1, and a paper by Dr. Kennedy in the Cambridge Philological Society's Proceedings, No. V. 1883. It seems doubtful whether the older reading adsit, supported by M, which has assit, and the preponderant number of MSS., is not correct, and it is now adopted by Riese and Ehwald. An affirmative clause of purpose then follows upon a negative (‘to prevent your diffidence and to give you assurance,’) a construction which I have suggested also in XIII. 271. See Madvig, l.G. § 462 b., and Mayor on Juv.xvi. 9.fiducia formae, R. § 525 (b).
tantum quoque. [Can.7 has qum corrected from quam. Cum tantum would be a repetition suited to the magic character of Circe. Another Bodleian MS., F. IV. 30 (of cent. xii.), gives quantum quoque gramine possim; this suggests, what gives a better force to quoque, carmine cum quantum, tantum quoque gramine possim. But the constitution of the verse is unusually doubtful. R. E.] For the assonance cf. Fast.VI. 159: “extis puerilibus, inquit, parcite. pro parvo victima parva cadit. cor pro corde, precor, pro fibris sumite fibras.”
ut . . . voveo, ‘pray to be thy love.’ Cf. XIII. 88 n. So the word may be translated in the other passages cited by Lewis and Short for the sense ‘wish.’spernentem, sequenti, absolutely ‘the scorner, the suitor.’
duas, sc. Scylla and herself. With this reading (the easier duos, which would refer to Glaucus and Circe, appears as a correction in h) the force of ulciscere is doubtful. Haupt takes it of ‘righting’ Scylla and Circe herself from the persecution of Venus, who afflicted the former with an unwelcome suit, the latter with love unrequited. But it seems possible that the verb may combine the two senses of ‘punishing’ Scylla for her disdain, and of ‘vindicating’ Circe from her rivalry. Cf. Plaut. Men.III. ii. 7(cited by Lewis and Short), non hercle ego is sum, qui sum, ni hanc iniuriam meque ultus pulcre fuero. [Circe seems to mean: ‘despise Scylla, love me; and thus take a double revenge, upon her for slighting your suit, for me, that hate her as a rival to myself, and for treating you as she has done.’ Ulciscere thus would be used in its two senses alternately, (1) punish Scylla, (2) revenge me. R. E.]
For the images of impossibility cf. XIII. 324 n.
mutentur, Roby, § 1672, R. § 698. But the subjunctive is not invariably used when the event is thus spoken of merely as a conception, not to be realised in act. See Roby, § 1675, Madv. § 360 obs. 3, and cf. Virg. Aen.IV. 28.amores, ‘love,’ a common use of the plural. Cf. IV. 259, dementer amoribus usa.
quatenus, ‘inasmuch as.’ So in VIII. 785. Glaucusas a god, or because he had already departed, was out of her power.
vellet, hypothetical, depending on the condition negatived in non poterat, R. § 644.amans, ‘for love,’ in consequence of her love.illi, ‘that other,’ not merely antecedent to quae, but indicating the shifting of her thoughts from Glaucus.
Veneris, ‘of her love.’ Cf. XIII. 639 n.43. ‘‘and wicked weede of grizly juice together she did bray and in the braying witching charmes she ouer them did say.’ —Golding.’ The abl. horrendis sucis might be more naturally taken with infamia, as in XIII. 400, than as abl. of description. For tritis cf. XIII. 412 n.; the expression is equivalent to ‘accompanies the pounding with,’ though the words may also be spoken of metaphorically as an ingredient, as in G. III. 283.
caerula. Golding renders by ‘russet.’ Cf. XIII. 288 n.
adulantum, properly thus used of beasts ‘fawning’ by wagging the tail, if the etymology is correct which connects it with “εἴλω” and volvo.
decurrit, ‘glides;’ with the same idea of smoothness and ease of motion as in Virg. Aen.V. 212, prona petit maria et pelago decurrit aperto, where see the simile of the dove.
parvus gurges. Cf. XIII. 902.curvos in arcus, so as to resemble the curve of a bow. Cf. XI. 229, sinus curvos falcatus in arcus, Virg. Aen.III. 533, portus ab Euroo fluctu curvatus in arcum. For in cf. XIII. 29 n.
quies, a place of rest. Cf. Lucr. I. 404,“ferai . . . intectas fronde quietes”, where Munro observes that he knows no other instance of the word in this sense.ab aestu . . . caeli, ‘from rage of sea and aire,’ Golding.
medio . . . erat, ‘when the sun was in the full heat of his mid course,’ was at his strongest with his noon-tide heat, orbis being the circular path of the sun's apparent motion as in G. IV. 426, medium sol igneus orbem hauserat. The same expression occurs I. 592, XI. 353.plurimus, ‘in fullest presence’ and so ‘most powerful.’ Cf. Her.IV. 167, per Venerem parcas oro, quae plurima mecum est, Virg. Aen.III. 372, multo suspensum numine, and the corresponding use of “πολύς”, for which see Palmer on Her.l.c.
minimas . . . umbras, shining from the zenith had made the shadows shortest. Cf. III. 50, fecerat exiguas iam sol altissimus umbras. For the corresponding expression of evening lengthening the shadows see Virg. Ecl.I. 83, and II. 67.
praevitiat, a new compound, like praecorrumpere 134, praecontrectare V. 478, praeconsumere VII. 489, praedelassare XI. 731.portentificis, ‘misshaping,’ ‘which had power most monstrous shapes to frame’ (Golding). Cf. V. 217, saxificos vultus Medusae, Ibis, 553, saxificae ora Medusae. For such compounds see R. § 412, Roby, § 992, and cf. Milton, P.l. X. 294, ‘Death with his mace petrific,’ ib. VII. 217, ‘the omnific Word.’
fusos . . . nocenti, ‘juices that drip from baneful root.’ M has hic fusis, from which Madvig conjectures effusis, which then belongs to the previous clause.
obscurum . . . novorum, ‘right dark of uncouth words’ (Golding), made unintelligible by a jargon of strange words.
ter noviens. Cf. XIII. 952.demurmurat, ‘softly mumbling reeds’ (Golding). Cf. VII. 251, Tib.i. II. 47, magico stridore.
foedari, ‘deformed.’ Milton (l.c.) has imitated the transformation in the personification of Sin. Cf. Virg. Ecl.VI. 75, candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris, Aen.iii. 424-8.
aspicit. The indicative mood carries on the narrative. See R. § 735, Roby, § 1733.
proterva, ‘eager’ (Golding), ‘rude,’ nearly ‘intruding.’
corpus . . . pedumque is probably too unusual an expression to be merely a periphrasis, as Gierig takes it, for femora crura pedesque. Corpus has rather the sense of ‘flesh,’ ‘fleshy substance,’ as in I. 408.
Cerbereos rictus, ‘chaps like the chaps of Cerberus’ (Golding). Cf. Milton, P.l. ii., ‘wide Cerberean mouths.’ Korn takes it of the number, ‘as many mouths as Cerberus has,’ i.e. according to some versions of the story, fifty or a hundred. See Hor. C. II. xiii. 34, with Wickham's note.
statque . . . rabie, ‘swarms with fierce dogs.’ Cf. Virg. Aen.XII. 407, pulvere caelum stare vident, where Servius explains stare by plenum esse. See also Henry on Virg. Aen.VI. 300.Rabie is a conjecture due to Heinsius, all MSS. having the nominative: [rabies Can.7 ‘and stands one rabid pack of hounds.’ So King in his translation. R. E.]. For the expression, equivalent to canes rabidi, cf. Virg. Aen.V. 257(of a scene represented in embroidery), saevitque canum latratus in auras, Milton P.l. II. 653, ‘about her middle round a cry of Hell-hounds never ceasing barked.’ Cf. Ellis on Cat. LX. 2.
coercet. [Coheret Can.7 m. pr.; a later c has been written over. May not cohaerent be right? It is more direct. R. E.]
in Circes odium, ‘to glut her hate of Circe,’ who loved Ulysses and detained him with her, “λιλαιομένη πόσιν εἶναι”, Hom. Od.IX. 30.On his departure she warned him to beware of Scylla (ib. XII. 85-100), who, however, on his passage seized six men from the deck of his ship (ib. 240-57).
eadem. The story of the Trojans is here resumed from XIII. 729.fuerat mersura, ‘would have drowned,’ ‘had once been ready to drown,’ the pluperfect indicating, as always, that the state described by the participle had now come to an end. See Roby § 1453, R. § 590. The distinction between the use of sum, fui and eram, fueram is explained by Madvig, Opusc. Acad. II. p. 218.
ni . . . foret. Roby § 1570, R. § 652 (b).scopulum, the promontory still called Scilla.
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