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convexum periter, ‘on their upward way,’ ‘as they climbed the steep.’ But while the English only expresses the inclination of the ground, convexus (conveho) has also the idea of circularity ‘converging on all sides to a centre,’ and so is applied equally to things which we should call respectively ‘concave’ (as here to a volcanic crater) and ‘convex’ (as in XIII. 911, to a mountain cone), though in both cases it happens that the circumference is looked at from the central point, and so the translation must represent the ascent from the lake and the descent from the mountain. See a discussion of the word in Henry, Aeneidea, vol. I. pp. 784-7. It is to be remembered that they are issuing not from the Sibyl's cave of 104, the antrum of Virg. Aen.VI. 11 and 42, but from spelunca of ib. 236, which was situated by the side of the lake Avernus, and to reach which Aeneas and the Sibyl alike had to descend the sides of the crater, just as Hannibal did in order to offer sacrifice by the lake; ad lacum Averni per speciem sacrificandi . . . descendit, Liv.xxiv. XII. 4.By local tradition the two were subsequently confused, and the name Grotta della Sibilla is still given to an excavation by the lake, probably the opening of an unfinished tunnel. Cf. Milt. P. l. II. 434, ‘our prison strong, this huge convex of fire.’

Euboicam. Cumae or Cyme owed its origin to a joint settlement, first upon Aenaria (cf. 89 n.) and subsequently upon the opposite mainland, of colonists from Cyme in Aeolis and Chalcis in Euboea. It derived its name from the former, but recognised the latter as its metropolis, and so is called Euboean or Chalcidian (cf. Virg. Aen.VI. 2 and 17). Tradition placed the foundation of the city a century after the Trojan war, 1050 B.c.

emergit. [Emersit, Can.7 perhaps rightly, as M has emersus. R. E.].

sacris . . . litatis, ‘due acceptance gained in sacrifice.’ The transitive use of litare is after Virg. Aen.IV. 50, where Servius says: diis litatis dicere debuit: non enim sacra sed deos sacris litamus, id est placamus. [Can.7 omits que. R.E. ]

litora, Caieta, Gaeta, so called from the nurse of Aeneas, who died and was buried there (441, Virg. Aen.VII. 14). Virgil is here less precise than Ovid, for he has already called the place Caieta in Aen.VI. 900.

Neritius. Cf. XIII. 712 n.

Ulixei [Can.7 m. pr. Ulixeis. This is important. Most MSS. seem to give Ulixis. But M had Ulixe a. m. pr., altered to Ulixis. From Priscian, and from our ears, we know that Ovid wrote Ulixei. But in 180 Can.7 has Ulixis equally rightly. R.E. ].

Achaemeniden. The story of the desertion of Achaemenides by his Greek companions, and of his rescue by Aeneas on his first visit to Sicily is from Virgil Aen.III. 588654, where it is apparently original,

qui interrogative, R. § 207.

barbara, as Phrygian or Trojan. Cf. 220.

non hirsutus, not presenting the appearance described in Virg.iii. 593-4, dira inluvies immissaque barba, consertum tegumen spinis.

suus, restored to himself in appearance. Cf. III. 203 (of Actaeon), lacrimaeque per ora non sua fluxerunt, V. 546, ille sibi ablatus fulvis amicitur in alis.

spinis. ‘The parts of which his dress consisted were attached to each other not, as usual, with studs or buttons, but, as among the Indians still, and among the aborigines of whatever country, with skewers. Henry, Aeneidea, vol. II. p. 499.

aspiciam, R. § 666. Cf. 126 n. The oath would be a strong one in the mouth of Achaemenides.

hac . . . carina, ‘if home and Ithaca are dearer to me than this ship.’ The present reading, adopted also by Siebelis, Zingerle and Ehwald, was first edited by Heinsius in place of the older reading haec mihi ni potior domus est Ithacique carina. M has ne patiar and Ithacique. [Hec mihi ni potior domus est Ithacique carina, Can.7 Against Heinsius I think this reading may be right. ‘If this is not in my eyes a preferable home (to my own) and a better ship of Ulysses (than the real one in which I once voyaged), orif I feel aughtless of reverence for Aeneas than for my own father? Achaemenides speaks with bitter remembrance of the home of poverty he had been obliged to leave, and of the unfortunate fate which had attended him as the companion of Ulysses. Ithacique is certainly right. It is taken from Aen.III. 629.R.E. ]

veneror. For the mood see R. § 657 (b).

praestem licet. Cf. XIII. 18 n.

quod, ‘seeing that,’ ‘whereas,’ Roby, § 1745, R. § 741. Notice that ‘because,’ is inadmissible here, and that the term causal is too limited to express in all cases the relation of the clause introduced by quod. But possimne . . . esse may be read parenthetically, when quod . . . respicio will be, like quod . . . venit, constructed with ille dedit.

sidera solis. For the plural cf. G. I. 204, Arcturi sidera, where it need not be understood of the whole constellation Bootes. Sidus is not uncommonly used of the sun, as in IX. 286, cum . . . decimum premeretur sidere signum (i.e. in the tenth month). See other passages in Lewis and Short, and cf. I. 778, positosque sub ignibus Indos sideris, IV. 169, siderea qui temperat omnia luce cepit amor solem.

dedit quod, Roby, § 1701, R. § 713. Cf. XIII. 173.

anima haec, ‘my soul,’ the Latin word being used, like the English, for the living being. Cf. XIII. 76.

ut relinquam, ‘though I leave.’ Roby, § 1706, R. § 714 (d).

iam nunc, ‘this instant.’ Cf. Hor. A. P.43, iam nunc dicat iam nunc debentia dici, where see Wilkins's note.

condar, in the sense of burial, as in 442. For the living tomb cf. 209, VI. 665, (of Tereus), seque vocat bustum miserabile nati.

quid . . . animi, ‘what were then my thoughts?’ Cf. V. 626, quid mihi tunc animi miserae fuit?

nisi si, ‘save when,’ a combination rather frequent in Ovid. Cf. 561.

prodere timui, Roby, § 1344, R. § 534. The use of the infinitive as direct object with timeo and metuo, though not with vereor, is almost entirely poetical.

clamor Ulixis, the taunts addressed to Polyphemus from the ship, Od.IX. 475-525, by which the giant was provoked to hurl two masses of rock in the direction of the voice.

vidi cum. Cf. XIII. 223 n.

monte revulso, the first attempt, in which Polyphemus throws too far, medias in undas, Hom. Od.IX. 481.See note on XIII. 882, where the form of expression, like that of Homer, recommends the alternative reading revulsum, adopted by Magnus and Riese and approved by G. Owen.

tormenti. This simile is used also in VIII. 357, utque volat moles adducto concita nervo, IX. 217 (where Hercules hurls Lichas into the sea), terque quaterque rotatum mittit in Euboicas tormento fortius undas. It is taken from Virgil Aen.XI. 615, excussus Aconteus fulminis in morem aut tormento ponderis acti, ib. XII. 921 (of Aeneas hurling his spear) murali concita nunquam tormento sic saxa fremunt nec fulmine tanti dissultant crepitus.

giganteo lacerto, ‘with his giant's arm,’ an ornamental epithet for which cf. xiii.533 n.

saxa, the single rock (cf. xiii.108 n.) of the second throw, Od.IX. 537-41.

185. Just as fluctus is the wave raised by the rock ( Hom. Od.IX. 484), so ventus is the current of air set in motion by it, an exaggeration not greater than that of comparing the hurtling of Aeneas' spear to the ‘stammering cracks and claps’ of the thunderbolt. So Conington takes immani turbine in Virg. Aen.VI. 594, on which see Henry, Aeneidea, vol. III. p. 351. Cf. Milt. P.l. VI. 309.

ut vero. Terrible as was the spectacle of the attack upon the ship, it was less terrible than what followed when the giant realised that his destroyer had escaped. For the force of vero cf. IV. 107, VIII. 32, Liv.xxi. LIV. 9, ut vero Numidas insequentes aquam ingressi sunt, tum rigere omnibus corpora, on which Key remarks (Lat. Gr. § 1456): ‘Observe that the full translation of uero after ut or ubi is not given until the apodosis as it is called of the sentence. To understand the force of uero in this passage, it should be known that the Roman troops had come out of their camp without sufficient clothing, without breakfast, in a winter-day amid snow and wind.’ The same force is found more commonly in tum vero (‘then with a vengeance’ Key l.c.), for which see Henry Aeneidea on Aen.II. 105 and 228 Aen., III. 47 Aen., IV. 396 Aen., 449 and 571, and especially on V. 659, where he observes that the words indicate ‘the production, at last, of that full effect which preceding minor causes had failed to produce.’

praetemptat . . . silvas, ‘gropes his way through the woods.’ Cf. Ibis 259, trepidumque ministro praetemptes baculo luminis orbus iter.

luminis orbus, ‘sightless.’ Cf. xiii.564 n.

tabo, with the gore that flowed from his eye. In Virgil ( Aen.III. 663) the Trojans see the giant wade into the sea and wash away the blood.

o si, Roby § 1582, R. § 662. Here the hypothetical apodosis is expressed.

saeviat, Roby, § 1632, R. § 680.

viscera, ‘flesh.’ Cf. Virgil Aen.I. 211, tergora deripiunt costis et viscera nudant, where Henry quotes De Dogm. Plat. I. 16, Visceribus ossa sunt tecta . . . et tamen ea, quae sunt internuntia sentiendi, sic sunt operta visceribus, ne crassitudine sensus hebetentur. Illa etiam, quae iuncturis et copulis iuncta sunt, ad celeritatem facilius se movendi haud multis impedita sunt visceribus. On Virg. Aen.VI. 253, Servius gives the definition: quidquid inter ossa et cutem est.

mihi, R. § 480.

trepident. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 626, vidi atro cum membra fluentia tabo manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus.

quam . . . damnum, ‘how naught or slight would be the loss.’ See Roby, § 1759, where however no example is given of an exclamatory sentence of this hypothetical form.

haec et plura, sc. dixit (R. § 583), an idiom used frequently by Milton; cf. P.l. IV. 885, 902, V. 321, 404, 519, 544.

luridus, ‘pale’ (cf. 791), used of the emotion which produces pallor, as of a poison in I. 147, lurida aconita. Cf. “χλωρὸν δέος”, and Tennyson's ‘red ruin.’

inanem luminis, ‘sightless.’ Cf. xiii.564 n.

concretam, ‘clotted.’ Cf. XII. 270, pars fluit in barbam concretaque sanguine pendet.

minimum . . . malorum. The thought of death is not so terrible as that of dying in such a manner. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 606, where Achaemenides bids the Trojans drown him if they will: si pereo, hominum manibus periisse iuvabit.

prensurum, Roby, § 1347, but this use perhaps does not belong to the infinitive.

205. See Virg. Aen.III. 623-7.

ter quater, ‘again and again,’ with adfligi. It was formerly attempted to bring the narrative into closer accord with Homer, who makes the giant eat six Greeks in all at three meals ( Od.IX. 289 Od., 311 Od., 344), by punctuating after ter and taking quater alone with adfligi. Apart from the harshness of this, Ovid evidently follows Virgil in speaking of only one meal ( Aen.III. 623), the adverbs having, as in XII. 133, the same sense as the more usual terque quaterque. Notice that the first adverb does not, as in 58, multiply the second.

207-8. A close imitation, except in the quae . . . iacens, of Homer, Od.IX. 292: “ἤσθιε δ᾽ ὥστε λέων ὀρεσίτροφος οὐδ᾽ ἀπέλειπεν, ἔγκατά τε σάρκας τε καὶ ὀστέα μυελόεντα.

sine sanguine, bloodless and so ‘forceless,’ rather than merely pale, which Achaemenides could not observe in himself. For this meaning, which is more generally recognised in the metaphorical use of the word, cf. VII. 136, palluit et subito sine sanguine frigida sedit, X. 59, et color et sanguis animusque relinquit euntem. Exsanguis is used in the same sense, as in IX. 224 (of Lichas hurled through the air), exsanguemque metu nec quidquam umoris habentem. Cf. Virg. Aen.II. 212, ib. VI. 401.

211. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 632-3, Hom. Od.IX. 372-4.

glomerata. Cf. xiii.604 n.

214-20. Cf. Virg. Aen.III. 645-53.

moriri, Roby, § 738, p. 250, R. § 339, p. 143. M has morique, [Bod., Can.7 and D'Orville cupidusque moriri, Can.7 cupidusque mori mortisque timore. A most difficult passage. It is nearly impossible that Ovid can have written moriri. On the other hand Can.7 cannot be right as it stands. Perhaps Can.7 retains part of the original reading, viz. mortisque timore, Combining this with the reading of the other MSS. we get mortemque timens mortisque timore, ‘alike fearing death, and yet because I feared death staving off hunger by acorns.’ R.E. ] Why may not the reading of Can.7 be right? Fear of death persuades him to foil by eating his longing to die, as it persuades the plague-stricken to foil by suicide their longing to live:


pars animam laqueo claudunt mortisque timorem morte fugant (vii. 604).

post, adv. R. § 835, the ablative being that of measure, R. § 496.

movi, ‘prevailed.’ Cf. XIII. 382.

turbae, ‘crew,’ as at 607, ‘people.’

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