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Aeolon. Cf. 86 n. Ovid combines the Virgilian account of Aeolus as the divine gaoler of the winds ( Aen.I. 52-63, cf. I. 262-4 Aen., IV. 663), who keeps them imprisoned in a mountain cave, with the Homeric ( Od.X. 1-27), in which he is the human “ταμίας ἀνέμων”, who can help Ulysses driven to his island by raising a west wind and giving him the other winds tied in a skin.

Tusco profundo, ‘in the Tuscan sea,’ the Mare Tyrrhenum. Profundum is frequently so used; cf. V. 439 (of Proserpine), omnibus est terris, omni quaesita profundo.

Aeolon Hippotaden. Cf. xiii.771 n.

sumpsisse. The infinitive is used, as in the next six lines, to represent in oratio obliqua the indicative of a principal clause in oratio recta, the relative being used to coordinate these clauses, each of which carries on the narrative. See Roby, § 1781, Madv. § 402 (a, b). For coordination by the relative in oratio recta see Roby, § 1026 (b), Kennedy, P.S.l.G. § 82, Madvig, § 448.

lucibus novem, the ablative used of duration, Roby, §§ 1184-5, R. § 493. Cf. XIII. 371, and for the matter cf. Hom. Od.X. 28-9.

proxima post nonam, sc. the tenth.

invidia. Cf. Hom. Od.X. 35-45.

esse, ratos. With this punctuation victos esse and dempsisse are coordinate. All recent editors, except Ehwald, by removing the comma connect esse with ratos, which seems preferable, victos being then subordinate: it was greed that made the crew think the bag contained gold and open it. For ratos aurum Ehwald compares VIII. 251, IX. 706, Virg. Aen.V. 40.

ventis, dat. R. § 474 (b).

venerat. For the indicative in a subordinate clause of oratio obliqua see Roby, §§ 1797-8, R. §§ 778-9.

232. When the winds were let out of the skin, Ulysses and his companions were driven back to the isle of Aeolus, who refused to help him further, and bade him begone ( Hom. Od.X. 54-79): “οὐ γάρ μοι θέμις ἐστὶ κομιζέμεν οὐδ᾽ ἀποπέμπειν ἄνδρα τὸν ὅς κε θεοῖσιν ἀπέχθηται μακάρεσσιν. ἔρρ᾽ ἐπεὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἀπεχθόμενος τόδ᾽ ἱκάνεις.

Lami Laestrygonis, of Lamus, son of Neptune, a former king of the Laestrygones, a race of giant ogres and cannibals (the name is connected with “λάμος”, ‘maw,’ and lamia: see Wilkins on A.P. 340), whose country was fixed in later times in Sicily, or on the coast of Latium about Formiae, which he was said to have founded. Ovid says nothing as to the locality, there being an obvious difficulty in making Macareus relate the adventure close to Formiae at Caieta, which is afterwards called by Silius (viii. 531) regnata Lamo Caieta. The noble family of the Lamiae was fancifully supposed to be descended from him ( Hor. C. III. xvii. 1), and Virgil introduces a Rutulian chief of the name ( Aen.IX. 334). For the narrative see Hom. Od.X. 80-132.

numero duorum, sc. duobus (Roby, § 1302, R. § 523, numerus being used in the concrete sense of ‘a body,’ ‘a company.’

trabes, ‘tree trunks.’ Cf. 360, n. Trabs is also specially used of the missiles thrown from engines. Cf. Val. 383, Sil. Ital. VI. 280.

una tamen. Ulysses escapes by cutting the hawser and rowing away while the Laestrygones are busy with slaughter ( Od.X. 125-32).

amissa . . . dolentes, Homer's “ἀκαχήμενοι ἦτορ . . . φίλους ὀλέσαντες ἑταίρους”.

hinc, sc. from Caieta, 157. For the island of Circe cf. 10 n.

est. The MSS. have, hincsome (not M) videnda est. Korn, whom Ehwald does not follow, rejects hinc . . . tuque as a gloss on 247, so connecting procul with fuge litora Circes. Zingerle reads haec . . . videnda est. [Procul hinc mihi crede with mihi following in 245 looks wrong; but several of Heinsius' MSS. give procul hinc tibi, and this admits of an easy interpretation. Ovid seems to play on the meaning of procul hinc: ‘You discern you island in the distance; in the distance, believe me (and not near), must you still see that island, which I have seen with my eyes (or, actually).’ Cf. the use of “μακρὰν ἀπῳκεῖτο” in Soph. O. T. 998, as explained by Jebb. Macareus is advised to let the distant view he has of Circe's island remain distant still, and not to endanger his life by a nearer familiarity. R.E. ].

visa mihi, I have seen it and can speak from experience.

249. Cf. Hom. Od.X. 189-202, where Ulysses' proposal that they should explore the island finds no welcome among his crew: “μνησαμένοις ἔργων Λαιστρύγονος Ἀντιφάταο Κύκλωπός τε βίης μεγαλήτορος ἀνδροφάγοιο.

ire negabamus, ‘were for refusing to go.’

subire. For the infinitive thus used as indirect complement of a verb, and here expressing purpose, see Roby, §§ 1115 (4), 1362, R. § 540 (3). Lewis and Short give Theb.I. 531 as the only example of legere used with this construction. It is important to notice that the expression of purpose is only a frequent accident of the construction; the Latin infinitive stands to the finite verb in a general relation for which often an expression of purpose might have been substituted. In the following passage, for example, the two infinitives need quite different renderings: nec tamen illa suae revocatur parcere famae, turpior et saecli vivere luxuria (‘to spare’ and ‘from living’), Prop.i. XVI. 11.

fidumque Politen. Cf. Hom. Od.X. 224.

nimium . . . vino, Roby, §§ 1210-2, R. §§ 497-8, and cf. Hor. C. II. xii. 5, nimium mero Hylaeum. For the story of Elpenor see Hom. Od.X. 551-60: being heavy with wine he lay down for coolness on the roof of Circe's palace, and in his haste to descend when roused by the noise of his comrades, who were making ready for departure, missed the ladder, and fell headlong from the roof, breaking his neck. His ghost was the first to meet Ulysses in the shades, and implored him to burn and entomb the body ( Od.XI. 51-83), which Ulysses did on his return to the isle of Circe (ib. XII. 8-15, cf. 10 n.). There are many allusions to his fate, as in Ibis, 485, neve gradus adeas Elpenore cautius altos, vimque feras vini quo tulit ille modo. Ehwald reads from M nimioque, descriptive ablative, comparing III. 218, niveis Leucon et villis Asbolus atris (Roby, §§ 1232, 1309).

bis novem. In Homer ( Od.X. 203-9) Ulysses and Eurylochus divide the crew into two companies, numbering with themselves twenty-three each, not twenty-two as here. The two leaders cast lots for their companies, “ἐκ δ᾽ ἔθορε κλῆρος μεγαλήτορος Εὐρυλόχοιο”.

Ovid follows Homer, who apparently makes them tamed beasts, and not, as Virg. Aen.VII. 15-20, men transformed to beasts ( Hom. Od.X. 212-9): “ἀμφὶ δέ μιν λύκοι ἦσαν ὀρέστεροι ἠδὲ λέοντες, τοὺς αὐτὴ κατέθελξεν, ἐπεὶ κακὰ φάρμακ᾽ ἔδωκεν. οὐδ᾽ οἵγ᾽ ὡρμήθησαν ἐπ᾽ ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα τοίγε οὐρῇσιν μακρῇσι περισσαίνοντες ἀνέσταν. ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἂν ἀμφὶ ἄνακτα κύνες δαίτηθεν ἱόντα σαίνως᾿˙ αἰεὶ γάρ τε φέρει μειλίγματα θυμοῦ˙ ὣς τοὺς ἀμφὶ λύκοι κρατερώνυχες ἠδὲ λέοντες σαῖνον: τοὶ δ᾽ ἔδδεισαν, ἐπεὶ ἴδον αἰνὰ πέλωρα.

excipiunt famulae. In Homer's simpler narrative there is no mention of handmaids till afterwards. The Greeks, standing without, hear Circe “ἀειδούσης ὀπὶ καλῇ, ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένης μέγαν ἄμβροτον”, and call to her, “ δ᾽ αἶψ᾽ ἐξελθοῦσα θύρας ὤϊξε φαεινὰς καὶ κάλει: οἱ δ᾽ ἅμα πάντες ἀϊδρείῃσιν ἕποντο.

marmore tecta,τετυγμένα δώματα Κίρκης ξεστοῖσιν λάεσσι” ( Od.X. 210).

recessu, ‘an alcove,’ or inner chamber, as in I. 177, marmoreo superi sedere recessu.

pallam induta. Cf. xiii.534 n. The dress of Circe ( Hom. Od.X. 543-5) is identical with that of Calypso (ib. V. 230-2): “αὐτὴ δ᾽ ἀργύφεον φᾶρος μέγα ἔννυτο νύμφη, λεπτὸν καὶ χαρίεν, περὶ δὲ ζώνην βάλετ᾽ ἰξυῖ καλὴν χρυσείην: κεφαλῇ δ᾽ ἐπέθηκε καλύπτρην.” For the Roman palla see Becker's Gallus, Eng. Tr., pp. 435-8. The amictus is the veil called ricinium, which towards the end of the Republic had become a favourite portion of the Roman lady's dress.

Nereides nymphaeque. In Homer (cf. 311) the handmaids are four in number ( Od.X. 350): “γίγνονται δ᾽ ἄρα ταίγε ἔκ τε κρηνέων ἀπό τ᾽ ἀλσέων ἔκ θ᾽ ἱερῶν ποταμῶν, οἵτ᾽ εἰς ἅλαδε προρέουσιν.” In Homer, too, they are busied with household duties, which are particularly described ( Od.X. 352-72).

sequentia, ‘obsequious,’ which may combine the literal sense of ‘following’ with the metaphorical sense noticed on XIII. 123. Cf. Milton, P.l. VI. 10, ‘light issues forth, and at the other door obsequious darkness enters,’ ib. 781, ‘th’ uprooted hills retir'd each to his place; they heard his voice and went obsequious.’ Cf. III. 299, nutuque sequentia traxit nubila, where, as here, the word should be read with predicative or proleptic force.

gramina, like flores, with emphasis due to its position, startles the ear by the sudden contrast of occupation. Cf. 389, 627, where pennas and rus have the same effect.

disponunt, ‘assort,’ as secernunt expresses the putting into separate baskets.

ipsa . . . exigit. Ovid changes to suit his purpose the occupation of Circe as of her maidens. In Virgil ( Aen.VII. 14), as in Homer, she is busy with weaving, arguto tenuis percurrens pectine telas. Cf. Od.X. 222.

quove. Zingerle reads quoque, which seems best to contrast with mixtis.

advertens, sc. animum, ‘heedfully,’ or perhaps rather ‘with admonition,’ in the sense of increpans. Cf. Sen. Ep.94(cited by Lewis and Short), non docet admonitio, sed advertit. The mystery and horror of Circe's employment are heightened by words which suggest the occupation of the ideal Roman matron, with calathi about her, assigning tasks by weight to her maids (cf. XIII. 511), and bidding them be quick, as Lucretia does, ‘nunc, nunc properate, puellae’ ( Fast.II. 745).

dicta . . . vultus, ‘after exchange of greeting assumed a look of pleasure.’ Expansion of the countenance was a sign of pleasure, as contraction (contrahere) of the reverse; cf. III. 318, Iovem . . . diffusum nectare, Theb.II. 213, diffuderat Argos exspectata dies.

reddidit . . . votis. [Constantius of Fano seems substantially right in explaining (In Ovidii Metamm. Assumenta 1508) bene voventibus bona vovisse Circen, ‘replied to our (good) wishes with presages of good luck.’ Yet as omina is slightly forced in this sense, and omnia is found in Can.7 and other good MSS., I should prefer to retain this, and explain ‘replied (responded) to our good wishes by wishing us all the same,’ or perhaps in a more general sense ‘met our wishes with complete accord.’ R.E. ]

tosti . . . grani, ‘parched barleycorns.’ For the genitive R. § 524. Cf. Hom. Od.X. 234, “τυρόν τε καὶ ἄλφιτα καὶ μέλι χλωρὸν οἴνῳ Πραμνείῳ ἐκύκα”, ib. XX. 69, “τυρῷ καὶ μέλιτι γλυκερῷ καὶ ἡδέϊ οἴνῳ”. In Il.XI. 637 goat cheese is grated into Pramnian wine and meal sprinkled over. In V. 450 the mixture is simpler: lymphamque roganti dulce dedit, tosta quod texerat ante polenta. The thick drink thus compounded was called “κυκεών”, in Latin cinnus. It was probably to be preferred to the mixture of sulphuric acid, oatmeal and water, which in very hot weather is served out to shipwrights in the Royal dockyards.

vim meri, ‘the strength of wine’ (as in Ibis, 486, quoted 252 n.), ‘strong wine.’ For vis in this sense of ‘potency’ cf. Ex Pont. IV. x. 46 (of the comparative freshness of the Black Sea), vimque fretum multo perdit ab amne suam.

lacte coagula passo, ‘milk that had known the rennet,’ i.e. had become curdled. Cf. XIII. 830, where liquefacta coagula seems to mean the same thing as Fast.IV. 545, liquefacta coagula lacte, curd in a liquid or partially creamy state. On Italian cheese-making, ancient and modern, see Keightley's Excursus on G. III. 400, with appendix, s.v. Caseus.

lateant, R. § 680.

sucos. Cf. Hom. Od.X. 235, “ἀνέμισγε δὲ σίτῳ φάρμακα λύγῤ, ἵνα πάγχυ λαθοίατο πατρίδος αἴης”.

simul, as conjunction, like simul ac in 349 (Roby, § 1719, R. § 723) subordinating hausimus and tetigit to coepi. Originally simul is adverbial and the verbs co-ordinate, as in the general use of ac and “καὶ” in comparisons. What follows is in strong contrast to the simple narrative of Homer ( Od.X. 237-40): “αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δῶκέν τε καὶ ἔκπιον, αὐτίκ᾽ ἔπειτα ῥάβδῳ πεπληγυῖα κατὰ συφεοῖσιν ἐέργνυ. οἱ δὲ συῶν μὲν ἔχον κεφαλὰς φωνήν τε τρίχας τε καὶ δέμας, αὐτὰρ νοῦς ἦν ἔμπεδος ὡς τὸ πάρος περ.

et pudet et referam, ‘it shames me yet I will tell it.’ Cf. VIII. 506, et cupio et nequeo.

pro verbis. Cf. xiii.569 n.

edere. [Reddere Can.7, probably rightly. The verse is not written in M. R.E. ].

sumpta fuerant. As pocula no doubt refers to the cup just given by Circe, this is used for sumpta erant (pluperfect of state for pluperfect of act, Roby, § 1453, R. § 590), what Mr. Postgate calls a ‘double-loaded’ pluperfect (Select Elegies of Propertius, p. cxiii.). The same use may be noticed with adjectives, as in IV. 551, quae praecipue fuerat pia. The effect is to place the past in stronger antithesis to the present.

Eurylochum. In Homer ( Od.X. 232 Od., 244-60) this is contrived, not by his refusal to drink, but by his remaining without, “ὀϊσάμενος δόλον εἶναι”, and after some time going back to Ulysses at the ship to report the disappearance of his companions.

manerem, Roby, § 1530 c, R. § 641 C. We use for this indifferently either ‘I should have remained’ or ‘I should remain.’ Neither exactly expresses the force of manerem, which as past imperfect is the hypothetical equivalent of manebam. [Maneret Can.7 The verse is not written in M. R.E. ].

certior, ‘informed.’ Cf. xiii.722 n.

pacifer Cyllenius. Cf. xiii.146 n. Mercury is called pacifer because Hermes, with whom he was identified, was the god of persuasive eloquence, who presided over social and especially over diplomatic intercourse (“φίλον κήρυκα, κηρύκων σέβας”, Aesch. Ag.498), and whose characteristic emblem was the caduceus or herald's staff (“εἰρήνης ὅπλον ἀμεμφές”, Hym. XXVII. 7). The serpents entwined about it (originally white ribbons) were interpreted as a symbol of fierce natures subdued to concord. Cf. Plin. H.N. XXIX. 3, 12, § 54.

tenetur, ‘it clings.’

294. Apparently Ovid makes Ulysses refuse the cup and anticipate the stroke of the wand. In Homer ( Od.X. 316) he drinks, and Circe strikes him with the words “ἔρχεο νῦν συφεόνδε, μετ᾽ ἄλλων λέξο ἑταίρων”. The drug has no power over him, and he rushes upon her with drawn sword.

coniugii dotem, ‘as the price of his love.’ This was in accordance with Roman ideas: dos illa Romanorum mulierum veluti complementum pretii erat, quo mulieres sibi viros coemebant, et hinc Tacitus tamquam rem a Romanis moribus diversissimam notat quod apud Germanos soli viri sibi coemerint uxores, non uxores viros, Heineccius, Antiqq. Rom. II. viii. 3 a. The passage referred to is Germ.19, dotem non uxor marito, sed uxori maritus offert.

sociorum corpora, merely a periphrasis for socios, although it was specially their bodies that needed restoration, “αὐτὰρ νοῦς ἦν ἔμπεδος ὡς τὸ πάρος περ” ( Od.X. 240). In Homer (ib. 342-4) Ulysses at first only makes Circe swear to do himself no hurt; afterwards (ib. 375-87) he refuses to eat and drink with her until she restores his companions to their proper shape.

percutimur caput, ‘we are smitten on the head,’ but the idiom nearest to this reflective use (cf. XIII. 688) is ‘we get our heads struck.’ In Homer ( Od.X. 388-96) the counterchange is effected by a drug only; but there is the detail, which Ovid has not reproduced, that when restored they are “νεώτεροι πάρος ἦσαν, καὶ πολὺ καλλίονες καὶ μείζονες εἰσοράασθαι”.

quo . . . hoc, R. § 496.

lacertis bracchia. Both words are proper to the human shape, and so carry on the narrative; ‘upper arms are there, and fore arms below them.’

305-7. Their haste to thank Ulysses is a touch added by Ovid, but he omits Circe's emotion: “ἔγνωσαν δέ μ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι, ἔφυν τ᾽ ἐν χέρσιν ἕκαστος. πᾶσιν δ᾽ ἱμερόεις ὑπέδυ γόος, ἀμφὶ δὲ δῶμα σμερδαλέον κανάχιζε. θεὰ δ᾽ ἐλέαιρε καὶ αὐτή.

Od.X. 397-9.

praesens, ‘with my own eyes.’

ad talia sacra, such rites as Circe practised, those of magic.

picum. The woodpecker was a bird of importance in augury, sacred to Mars, and fabled to have joined the shewolf in feeding the twins Romulus and Remus, Fast.III. 54.

insigne, ‘adorned.’

quis foret, depending on quaerenti (sc. mihi), R. § 750.

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