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Picus, a Latin prophetic deity ( Fast.III. 291) represented as an early king of Latium, father of Faunus, and grandfather of Latinus. The woodpecker on the head of the statue serves as emblem of his prophetic power, just as his statue bears the lituus in Virg. Aen.VII. 187-91, where his metamorphosis is referred to. The story of it was told by Aemilius Macer , contemporary with Ovid, in the poem on birds mentioned Trist. IV. x. 43.

studiosus equorum. Cf. Virg. l.c. equum domitor.

licet aspicias, ‘thou can'st see.’ This use of licet is identical with that noticed on XIII. 18, though its relation to the context may require a different expression in English.

ficta . . . veram, ‘and judge the original from the counterfeit.’

per annos. Cf. XIII. 233 and 885. The meaning of the expression is that he had not lived long enough to see the quinquennial games at Olympia four times, and so was not twenty years old. It is inaccurate, because the games took place really every fourth year, and the period including four celebrations of them need not exceed thirteen years.

Graia. Though the story is told to a Greek, the adjective is appropriate, as Picus was Italian. In Riese's reading Graios edere pugnam depends upon spectasse.

suos acquires emphasis from its position in advance of vultus, an emphasis carried on by illum.

verterat, just as advertere is used in Tacitus of ‘drawing the attention of,’ as Ann.II. 172, octo aquilae imperatorem advertere. We may compare our expression, ‘to turn any one's head.’

Albula. Korn takes this to be the tributary of the Anio so named, the outlet of the Aquae Albulae, but it may be the Tiber under its earlier name (cf. 616 n.), as it is wherever else the name occurs in Ovid, Fast.II. 389 Fast., IV. 68 and V. 646.

Numici, sc. aquae. Cf. 579 n.

Almo, a stream falling into the Tiber about half a mile below the walls of Rome. It flows between three and four miles from a source over which a grotto was built, probably in imperial times, still containing the mutilated statue of the tutelary nymph. At the point where the Almo joins the Tiber was landed in 204 B.c. the statue of Cybele brought from Phrygia, whence arose the custom frequently mentioned of washing the statue itself with the sacred implements in the waters of the Almo at that place every year ( Fast.IV. 337-40).

Nar, a larger tributary of the Tiber, the modern Nera, which, rising on the borders of Picenum, where Umbria and the Sabine territory meet, flows along their border to the Tiber. It was noted for the white tinge of its water, for which see 616 n., and cf. Virg. Aen.VII. 517, sulfurea Nar albus aqua.

Farfarus, the Farfa, a stream which enters the Tiber about thirty-five miles from Rome. Servius identifies with it the Fabaris of Virg. Aen.VII. 715.

opacae undae, genitive of quality, R. § 524.

colunt, ‘haunt.’

Scythicae . . . Dianae. Near Aricia in one of the craters of the Alban hills, the sides of which are thickly wooded, is a lake still called Lago di Nemi, from a grove and sanctuary of Diana which stood upon its bank. This sanctuary had a legendary connection with the worship of the Tauric Artemis, for Orestes was said, after carrying off from the Scythian Chersonese (the Crimea) his sister Iphigenia and the image of the goddess, to have brought the latter with him to Aricia, where he settled and was buried. The connection was possibly suggested by a comparison between the human sacrifices of Artemis and a horrible custom which prevailed at the Nemus Dianae. The priest (who was called rex nemorensis, which gives point to regnum nemorale) was always a runaway slave, who appointed himself by killing his predecessor. This custom was found still in use by Pausanias towards the end of the second century A.D. , and Suetonius relates of Caligula (35): nemorensi regi, quod multos iam annos potiretur sacerdotio, validiorem adversarium subornavit. Cf. Fast.III. 271: “regna tenent fortesque manu pedibusque fugaces, et perit exemplo postmodo quisque suo.

nymphen. Ovid frequently uses the Greek forms of this word for the sake of sound or metre. Cf. Fast.III. 659 for the accusative, and for nominative or vocative 762 Fast., I. 744 Fast., III. 357, Amor. II. xvii. 15, and the following passages in the Fasti, I. 435, III. 659, V. 123, 197, VI. 107. On the Latin use of Greek nouns see Kennedy P. S. L. G. § 22, and cf. xiii.423 n.

Ionio. There is another MS. reading ancipiti (with reference to the double face of Janus, as he is called biceps, Fast. I. 65), which Merkel regards as an evident interpolation. M has hionio, and Zingerle mentions a variant Aonio. He adopts Rappold's conjecture Ausonio, the point of which epithet would be the exclusively Italian character of Janus, cf. Fast.I. 89, quem tamen esse deum te dicam, Iane biformis? nam tibi par nullum Graecia numen habet. Ionio is interpreted of Janus merely as an immigrant from beyond the Ionian sea, with reference to an independent tradition that he came from Perrhaebia, an inland district of Thessaly, for the epithet can be connected with that district itself only by the mention in Strabo of an insignificant stream Ion, a tributary of the Peneius. Merkel believes that hionio in M has arisen from a combination of two errors, one similar to that by which the same copyist has written in 609 innominis for binominis, the other to that by which in XI. 366, he believes niveis to have arisen from mucis (where Korn reads iuncis). He thus arrives at innocuo, an epithet applied to Deucalion and Pyrrha in I. 327, which is illustrated by the description of the mild and peaceful rule of Janus in Fast.I. 247-54. [From the obvious play of sound in Ionio Iano I have no doubt that this is the right reading, though Can.7, Bod., Can.1 agree in reading ancipiti. Heinsius is probably right in explaining Ionio of Janus as a Perrhaebian god from beyond the Adriatic or Ionian sea. The other suggestion of Heinsius that Inoo is the true reading, and that Janus is here identified with Palaemon or Portunus is improbable. R.E. ].

Venilia, a sea-nymph introduced by Virgil ( Aen.X. 76), as mother of Turnus and sister of Amata wife of Latinus. She was wife of Daunus (not Faunus, as Dict. Biogr.).

cunctis, dative R. § 474, (b).

Laurenti, of Laurentum, a sea-coast city of Latium, and according to the legend its capital before the government was removed to Lavinium. Cf. Aen.VII. 171.

rara, ‘excellent.’ Cf. Her.XVII. 93, est quoque, confiteor facies tibi rara.

movere, not in the metaphorical sense, but literally of setting in motion two things of which the special characteristic is immobility, so that the word has the same appropriateness as mulcere, morari and retinere. Cf. VII. 204-5. The voice of Canens possesses the same power as the lyre of Orpheus or Arion , of which there are many descriptions, as X. 86-105, Fast.II. 84-92, Ars Amat. III. 321-6. So Apollo was said to have built Troy and Amphion Thebes by playing on the lyre, Her.XVI. 180, Hor. A. P.394.

cum modulatur. Roby, § 1721, R. § 725. Zingerle, Edwards and Ehwald read dum.

feminea voce. Cf. xiii.533 n.

indigenas. Boars abounded in the district. Cf. Fast.II. 231, aper silvis longe Laurentibus actus.

contractus. Cf. xiii.534 n.

ab auro. Cf. xiii.597 n., ib. 720 n.

novas, other than such as grew about Circeii.

herbas, for herbae, an instance of what is commonly called attraction of the antecedent, or in Greek inverse attraction. See Roby, § 1067, or better Madv. § 319 obs.

medullas, often spoken of as the seat of love. Cf. Cat. XLV. 16, ignis mollibus ardct in medullis, where Dr. Ellis quotes medullitus amare from Most. I. iii. 86. So in I. 473 (of Cupid shooting his golden arrow), laesit Apollineas traiecta per ossa medullas.

ne posset, Roby, § 1700, R. § 712 b. She was prevented from approaching by the pace of the horse and the presence of his retinue. Ne is frequently found with facere and efficere in consecutive clauses. Cf. XII. 282, quod ne permittat in hostem ipsa facit gravitas.

circumfusus satelles, ‘his throng of attendants.’ For the collective force of satelles cf. xiii.691 n.

nonait. [Non tamen, Can.7 Bod. The abruptness is quite in Ovid's manner. R.E. ]

rapiare licebit. Cf. xiii.862 n.

nec me, [Can.7 Bod. It is nearly certain that Ovid would not have omitted me. R.E. ] Zingerle and Ehwald read et non.

densum trabibus. Cf. 239, VIII. 329, silva frequens trabibus, XI. 642, ille in humum saxumque trabemque quaeque vacant anima feliciter omnia transit.

praedae umbram, ‘the phantom quarry.’ Umbram seems to be what is called by Jelf (Gr. Gr. § 442 e), an ‘adjectival substantive,’ the expression being comparable to such as “πυρὸς σέλας” (‘bright fire’) Aesch. P. v. 7, “φωτῶν ἀθλίων ἱκτήρια” (‘poor suppliant mortals’) Soph. Oed. Col. 923. Cf. Virg. G. IV. 441, miracula rerum, Aen. I. 204, discrimina rerum, Prop.iii. VII. 52, fulminis ira cadit (and see Hertzberg Quaest. Propert. p. 149), Juv.iv. 39, spatium admirabile rhombi (‘a marvellous great turbot’) and perhaps Lucr.v. 369,cladem pericli”, ib. 1193,murmura magna minarum” (Munro gives the epithetic force to the genitive). Cf. also Milton, P. l. VI. 212, ‘overhead the dismal hiss of fiery darts in flaming volleys flew,’ ib. IX. 270, ‘the virgin majesty of Eve . . . replied.’

pedes, ‘on foot.’

ignotos deos. Cf. 404 and Medea's incantation in VII. 192-219.

confundere, ‘to wreck’ and make unrecognisable, used especially of the effect of a crushing blow, as from a log of wood, V. 58, a huge candelabrum, XII. 246-53.

patrio, sc. solis. Cf. 10 n. So Medea (daughter of Aeetes son of Helios) VII. 208, currus quoque carmine nostro pallet avi.

bibulas, ‘dank,’ of clouds full to bursting and so dark and heavy. Cf. 632 n., XIII. 901. Having the general meaning of ‘absorbent,’ the word does not, like our ‘thirsty,’ imply the absence or lack of moisture. Cf. IV. 730, maduere graves adspergine pennae, nec bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus credere (where graves is proleptic, and bibulis, ‘soaked,’ emphatic), Ars Amat. I. 233, vinaque cum bibulas sparsere Cupidinis alas, permanet et capto stat gravis ille loco, Mart.xi. XXXII. 2, de bibula sarta palude teges. So in G. I. 114, paludis collectum humorem bibula deducit arena, where Keightley takes bibula arena of the absorbent soil from which the water is to be drawn off, so that it may mean ‘spongy,’ ‘soaked.’ And this is the most natural meaning of the word when it is used in connection with the breaking waves, as in Her.XIX. 201, quem postquam bibulis illisit fluctus harenis, Lucr. ii. 376,bibulam pavit aequor harenam”. ‘Spongy’ receives the same accession of meaning in Macbeth, I. vii. 71.

subtexere, ‘to weave a veil over.’ Cf. Lucr. VI. 482,et quasi densendo subtexit caerula nimbis”, Virg. Aen.III. 582.

tum quoque. The charm does not fail of its wonted effect.

per, o, tua lumina, R. §§ 798, 831 (b).

ceperunt, ‘have captivated,’ a metaphorical use like that of rapuit in XIII. 775.

consule . . . ignibus, ‘have regard for my love.’

Titanida. Cf. xiii.968 n.

ferox, ‘coldly.’

teneat, comprecor, Roby, § 1606, R. § 672. Comprecor occurs with the same construction X. 640, XII. 285.

socialia foedera, of the marriage tie, as Her.IV. 17.

non impune feres. This phrase, which seems not to be noticed in Lewis and Short, is something like our ‘to carry it off.’ Cf. XI. 207, XII. 265, VIII. 494, (without a negative) ergo impune feret. But it is also found with the ordinary sense of permitting or enduring, as in VIII. 279, at non impune feremus, quaeque inhonoratae, non et dicemur inultae. Cf. Ellis on Cat. LXXVII. 9, XCIX. 3, and Key, Lat. Dict. s.v. aufero 11.

reddere, fut. pass.

Canenti. The repetition in the same position is effective.

laesa. Notice that the gender necessarily anticipates femina.

faciat, ‘does’ or ‘can do,’ ‘will do,’ the present, as a tense of incomplete action (R. § 591), describing in the subjunctive, as in the indicative, capacity or tendency.

rebus. Cf. xiii.382 n. As Korn remarks, rebus is feeble after disces, while ait is unintelligible after the ait immediately preceding, for which enim is found only in late MSS.

ter . . . tria. Cf. Fast. IV. 551, terque manu permulsit eum, tria carmina dixit. The number three and multiples of it have a special association with magic, as in the story of Medea, VII. 153, 189, 261 and 324. Cf. 58, XIII. 952.

solito, ‘than his wont,’ Roby § 1270, R. 513 (b).

miratur. So of Actaeon III. 198, fugit Autonoeius heros, et se tam celerem cursu miratur in ipso.

pennas. The emphasis expresses his surprise, as in V. 671. Cf. 266 n.

accedere silvis, not in the literal sense, for he was already in the woods, but metaphorically, ‘to join’ ‘to be recruited to.’ Cf. V. 674, volucresque novas accedere silvis.

fera robora, the wild tree-trunks.

traxere, ‘took,’ ‘donned,’ as in Fast.IV. 561 of Ceres veiling herself in cloud: nubem trahit. So “ἐπισπᾶσθαι” is used. Ovid's description does not exactly suit any species of woodpecker, but is nearest to Picus maior, which is said to be common in Italy.

momorderat, ‘had clasped.’ Cf. VIII. 318, rasilis huic summam mordebat fibula vestem.

antiquum, of his former self. Cf. xiii.897 n.

nomina, of a single name, as very frequently. Cf. 612.

clamato, called upon by shouting his name. Cf. II. 443.

tenuaverat, the opposite process to densetur of 369.

recludi. Cf. Virg. G. IV. 51, pulsam hiemem sol aureus egit sub terras, caelumque aestiva luce reclusit.

premunt, sc. Circen, which is to be taken also with reposcunt.

vim ferunt, ‘are for using force.’

sucos veneni, ‘poisonous juice.’ R. § 523 (b).

Noctisque deos, as in the invocation of Medea already referred to, VII. 192-8. The expression is to be understood of the children of Nox, according to Theog. 211-25: “Νὺξ δ᾽ ἔτεκε στυγερόν τε Μόρον καὶ Κῆρα μέλαιναν καὶ Θάνατον, τέκε δ᾽ ῾Ύπνον, ἔτικτε δὲ φῦλον Ὀνείρων.

Cf. the similar list of the children of Erebus and Nox in Cic. de nat. deor. III. 17.

Ereboque Chaoque, ‘from Erebus and Chaos,’ R. § 509.

longis ululatibus. Cf. III. 706.

arbor, ‘trees,’ collectively as in XIII. 690.

pabula, ‘pasture,’ ‘herbage.’ Cf. 43, XIII. 943.

lapides, ‘rocks.’

canes, the dogs of Hecate. Cf. Virg. Aen.VI. 257, Hor. Sat.I. viii. 35, Apoll. R. III. 1216: “ἀμφὶ δὲ τήν γε ὀξείῃ ὑλακῇ χθόνιοι κύνες ἐφθέγγοντο”.

squalere, used of that which has its outline or surface broken, as of the Gorgon 's head (iv. 656) with reference to the alternis immixtos crinibus angues (ib. 792), of an arrow encrusted with poison, Fast. v. 397, squalentia tela venenis, of the Romans before shaving was introduced, Juv.viii. 17, squalentes avos. Here the ground is described as ‘rankling’ with snakes.

silentum, ‘of the dead,’ as in XIII. 25.

monstris, the strange sights and sounds.

vulgus, ‘the knaves,’ ‘the varlets.’

paventis, sc. vulgi.

ab attactu. Cf. XIII. 105 n., and 720, n.

variarum . . . ferarum, ‘strange shapes of beasts diverse.’ Cf. Virg. Aen.VIII. 698, omnigenumque deum monstra. The beasts are said to come upon the men, just as Milton (P.l. IX. 505) speaks of the serpents ‘that in Illyria changed Hermione and Cadmus.’ In both cases the change is external only, the human identity being preserved.

Sparserat, sc. lumine as in Virg. Aen.XII. 113, but this absolute use of spargere seems harsh. [Presserat Can.7, Can.1, Bod.; perhaps rightly, ‘had sunk upon.’ R. E.]. Cf. Stat. Theb.VII. 105, iam pronis Gradivus equis Ephyrea premebat litora.

Tartessia, of Tartessus in Spain, used to indicate the extreme west. Cf. Sil. Ital.iii. 399, Tartessos stabulanti conseia Phoebo.

obvia, ‘to meet him.’

totidem . . . lumina, six days.

Thybris, a Greek form (“Θύμβρις” or “Θύβρις”) of Tiberis, frequent in poetry, with genitive Thybridis (xv. 432), accusative Thybrim or Thybrin (ii. 259), Roby, § 501, R. § 170 (2).

longa ripa seems to mean merely ‘along the bank,’ as in I. 13, nec bracchia longo margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite. Merkel suspects that some more definite indication of place is concealed.

428. [Ipsos modulata dolores, Can.7 rightly. The other reading ipso modulata dolore is very tame, though found in Bod. and seemingly in the Marcianus. R. E.] King translates ‘still tuning grief to music.’ Heinsius conjectured spissos modulata dolores.

olim, (R. § 226) of a time contemplated, ‘at yon time,’ and so, ‘in the season,’ ‘at times.’ as Fast. iii. 555, ut


olim amisso dubiae rege vagantur apes, XI. 508, ferreus olim cum laceras aries ballistave concutit arces. Cf. xiii.512 n.

430. Ovid has used this simile of the dying swan also in Her.VII. 1(Dido of her epistle to Aeneas), Fast. ii. 109 (of Arion ) and of himself in Trist. v. I. 11-4 (which illustrates exequialia): “utque iacens ripa deflere Caystrius ales dicitur ore suam deficiente necem, sic ego, Sarmaticas longe proiectus in oras, efficio, tacitum ne mihi funus eat.

extremum, ‘last of all,’ R. § 224.

liquefacta. Cf. xiii.534 n.

medullas. Cf. 351 n.

Canentem, no doubt an invention of Ovid's.

Camenae. These were not the Greek Muses, with whom they were identified by poets as early as the time of Livius Andronicus, but native Italian goddesses of song and prophecy (originally Casmenae from the root which appears also in carmen).

437. At the end of the year's stay with Circe Ulysses is urged by his companions to renew the voyage homewards ( Od.X. 472-5). Circe consents to their departure, but bids Ulysses first to go down among the dead to consult Teiresias, an adventure which occupies Od.xi.On his return to Aeaea (ib. XII. 1-145) Circe predicts his future dangers from the Sirens, Scylla and Charybdis, and warns him not to injure the oxen of Helios in Thrinacia. Macareus is supposed to be landed in the course of the voyage to the Sicilian strait.

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