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negata auxilia, ‘the refusal of aid.’ Cf. xiii.64 n.

datur. Cf. XIII. 482.

avidas, with the same metaphor as in alimenta. Cf. VIII. 838-40. In the same sense rapidus is used, as in II. 123, XII. 274.

pinea texta. Cf. XI. 524, cava texta carinae, Cat. LXIV. 10, pinea coniungens inflexae texta carinae.

picem et ceras, with which the ships were caulked.

Mulciber. Cf. xiii.639 n.

ibat. Gierig remarks on the frequent use of ire to express swift and violent motion, where a stronger word might be expected. Cf. 545, Hor. C. I. ii. 15.

incurvae carinae, ‘of the rounded hull.’ “Carina should be not the keel, but the hull or lower part of the hull.” Prof. Nettleship in Journal of Philology, vol. XII. (1883) p. 192, citing I. 298, B.c. III. 13, and the use of the verb carinare in Pliny XI. § 207. ‘The meaning of the word may perhaps help us to its etymology. I suspect that it is derived from the base cas- or car- = empty; compare careo, cas-sus, caries (properly = emptiness). Thus carina originally meant an empty husk or shell, a sense in which it is actually used by Pliny 15, 88, namque sunt bifidae putaminum carinae, nucleorumque alia quadripartita distinctio. The shape of a nut-shell may thus have suggested to the early Italians the construction of a rounded hull.” Cf. XI. 524, intra cava texta carinae, but in 552 the word is used of the keel only.

transtra. Zingerle reads igne, Riese tigno, a conjecture of Heinsius. [Can.7 and Bod. give transtra, D'Orv castra. R. E.].

cum . . . complevit, Roby, § 1733, R. § 735.

memor, Roby, § 1351.

Idaeo vertice, in a sacred grove on the top of Mt. Ida. Cf. Virg. Aen.IX. 86: “lucus in arce fuit summa, quo sacra ferebant, nigranti picea trabibusque obscurus acernis: has ego Dardanio iuveni, cum classis egeret, laeta dedi.

Cybele entreats Jupiter that the ships may be proof against all dangers, which he refusing as contrary to the ordinance of fate, promises that such as get safe to Italy shall there be made immortal and sea deities. The metamorphosis takes place as the Rutulians rush on to fire them.

sancta deum genetrix. Cf. Virg. Aen.IX. 82, deum . . . genetrix Berecyntia.

pulsi aeris, of clashing cymbals, as inflati buxi of the blown flute.

leonibus, the car drawn by lions. Cf. xiii.253 n. and for the matter X. 704, Fast. iv. 217.

inrita, predicative, and to be rendered in English adverbially or by a periphrasis (‘it is in vain that, etc.’) In Virgil l.c. Cybele addresses the Trojans: “ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere naves neve armate manus; maria ante exurere Turno quam sacras dabitur pinus.

saliente. Cf. Virg. G. I. 449, in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando.

tumidum, proleptic, so as to cause it to swell.

Astraei. The winds were sons of Astraeus and Aurora, Theog. 378.

fratres, in emphatic juxtaposition with proelia. Cf. I. 60, tanta est discordia fratrum.

alma parens. So Cybele is referred to as turrita mater (x. 696), Cybeleia mater (Ars Amat. I. 507), Phrygia mater (Fast. ii. 55), mater Idaea ( Liv.xxix. X. 5).

pronas, headforemost. Cf. Virg. Aen.IX. 119, delphinumque modo demersis aequora rostris ima petunt. The two descriptions should be contrasted.

corpora, ‘flesh,’ as King translates. Cf. 64 n. IV. 443.

puppes. The stern, as the highest and most conspicuous part of an ancient ship, is naturally selected in metamorphosis to form the head, and the motion of the oars thus passes most easily to that of hands and feet.

natantia, with digitos and crura.

sinus, the bulging side of the ship.

in usum, ‘to serve as.’

lina, the cordage.

caerulus, ‘duskie’ (Golding). Cf. 45, XIII. 288, n.

fuerat, of the time antecedent to the change. Cf. 72 n., 284 n.

illas, as idem in a similar use (cf. xiii.788 n.), points the contrast.

exercent, ‘ply,’ ‘stir,’ set in motion. So it is used of ploughing, G. I. 220; of winds spreading a fire, Her.XV. 9.

molle, ‘buxom,’ soft and yielding as contrasted with duris montibus.

celebrant, ‘haunt,’ ‘frequent.’

nec . . . origo, ‘and no feeling of their birth touches them.’ This force of the verb is particularly common in Ovid. Cf. 667.

nisi siqua, ‘save to such as.’ Cf. 177 n. So the aves Diomedeae were said to be friendly to Greek sailors, hostile to barbarian.

Neritiae ratis, the ship of Ulysses (cf. xiii.712 n.) which was broken by a storm and all his crew drowned for their offence in killing the oxen of Helios in Thrinacia, he himself escaping on floating timbers to Calypso's island ( Hom. fin.).

rigescere, to stiffen into the nature of stone, as in IX. 357 it is used of metamorphosis to a tree.

Alcinoi. The ship of Alcinous which carried Ulysses back to Ithaca was on its return to Scheria turned to a rock by a blow from the trident of Neptune ( Od.XIII. 149-164). The rock was still shown at Corcyra, which was identified with the Homeric island of the Phaeacians, as late as the sixth century A.D. , when it was seen by Procopius, who also saw at Rome in perfect preservation the ship of Aeneas, which is here changed to a sea nymph.

spes erat, ‘there was hope,’ it might have been hoped.

in nymphas animata, ‘quickened into nymphs.’

posse, ‘might’ desist, would perhaps desist.

monstri, ‘the miracle.’

deos, on the side of the Rutulians Juno (cf. 582, XIII. 574, for her enmity to Troy), on that of the Trojans Venus.

quodque . . . instar, ‘and what amounts to Gods,’ i.e. is as good as the actual presence of divine supporters. Cf. Virg. Aen.X. 773, dextra mihi deus et telum . . . adsint.

570. Cf. 449 n.

vicisse, ‘victory.’ Roby, § 1371.

bella, object of deponendi as well as gerunt.

dicta. Cf. 152 n. For Dardanus ignis see Appendix.

subvolat, ‘soars.’

everberat, in expression of grief, as is shown by deplangitur.

‘Its note, its form Emaciate, and its pallid hue, beseemed The captured town it sprang from.’—KING.

The story seems to have arisen from the identity of name, like the other story in Hyginus, as given by Servius, that an omen given by a heron caused the town to be named after it.

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