iniusti miles Amuli, ‘the soldiery of lawless Amulius,’ miles indicating that his lawless power was based on force. Amulius deposed his elder brother Numitor, killed his son Lausus and made his daughter Rea Silvia (Ilia) a vestal virgin. Her sons Romulus and Remus slew Amulius and restored their grandfather, Liv.i. iii.-vii., Fast.III. 9-68.

festis Palilibus, the Palilia, or festival of Pales, a deity of shepherds, celebrated April 21, on which day, according to tradition, Rome was founded, Fast.IV. 721-862.

patres, fathers of the girls who had been carried off by the Romans, as is related by Livy I. ix.-xiii. Tarpeia, daughter of Spurius Tarpeius, commander of the citadel, agreed to admit the Sabines on condition of receiving what they wore on their left arms, aureas armillas magni ponderis gemmatosque magna specie anulos. They kept the letter of their promise and punished the traitress by overwhelming her with their shields (armis).

sati Curibus, ‘the sons of Cures,’ which was the chief town of the Sabines.

luporum. A similar comparison is found in Virg. Aen.II. 355: “lupi ceu raptores atra in nebula, quos inproba ventris exegit caecos rabies catulique relicti faucibus expectant siccis.

corpora, ‘men.’

Iliades, sc. Romulus, son of Ilia (Rea Silvia) Fast.IV. 54.

Saturnia. Juno is still hostile in spite of the reconciliation of 582. Macrobius relates the story differently (Sat. i. IX. 17-8). The gate opened three times after being shut, and was then put under a strong guard, who fled panic-stricken upon a report that the Romans were being worsted in the battle then raging. Ovid relates the story also in Fast.I. 260-72, where Janus claims the credit here given to the Naiads.

clausura fuit, ‘would have shut it.’

nisi . . . deum. Cf. II. 677, III. 336, neque enim licet irrita cuiquam facta dei fecisse deo.

Iano, sc. to the temple of Janus. Cf. xiii.715 n. The identity of this temple has been disputed. It was probably the small chapel said to have been built by Numa at or near the gate betrayed to the Sabines (hence called the porta Ianualis). This was situated in the Argiletum ( Liv.i. XIX. 2) between the Capitoline and Quirmal hills, and in commemoration of the incident was kept open in time of war. Ovid seems to have imperfectly combined two forms of the legend, in which the treachery of Tarpeia was variously represented as successful and unsuccessful.

sustinuere. Cf. XI. 583, at dea non ultra pro functo morte rogari sustinet.

nondum, the water was not a sufficient obstacle so long as it was cold.

lurida. Cf. 198 n., and for the description XV. 350, (in explanation of the fires of Aetna): “sive bitumineae rapiunt incendia vires. luteave exiguis ardescunt sulphura fumis.

ima fontis. Cf. 814, Roby, § 1292.

gemini postes, the doors at either end of the temple of Janus.

rigidis. The combination of strength and sternness implied by the word is perhaps most nearly expressed by ‘stark,’ as it was used of William the Conqueror; ‘stark man he was, and great awe men had of him.’

novo, ‘sudden,’ then first called into existence. Cf. 499, xiii.406 n.

dum indueret, ‘till such time as he should put on,’ ‘to give him time to don,’ Roby, § 1664. Cf. xiii.440 n.

Martius miles, the Romans, so called because Romulus, founder of Rome, was son of Mars. Cf. Hor. Od.I. ii. 35.

ultro. Cf. 30 n. Romulus was not content to remain on the defensive.

suis, sc. the bodies of its own sons.

generi, soceri. Cf. xiii.509 n., Liv.i. XIII. 2, orantes ne sanguine se nefando soceri generique respergerent, ne parricidio macularent partus suos.

inpius, ‘unnatural.’ Cf. xiii.435 n.

accedere, ‘be added to,’ ‘share.’ Cf. 390 n.

occiderat. Tatius was killed in a tumult at Lavinium, Liv.i. XIV. 2.

iura dabas. Cf. 823, xiii.25 n.

res . . . valet. Cf. Fast.II. 475, where also the apotheosis of Romulus is related: “habet Romana potentia vires: sanguinis officio non eget illa mei.” [nec was restored by Heinsius for et of MSS. R.E. ]

nepoti, sc. tuo, the relationship of Zeus and Ares being transferred to Jupiter and Mars.


solvere, imponere, epexegetic infinitives depending on tempus adest. See Roby § 1360, and cf. 250 n.

ablatum, sc. nepotem.

memoro, ‘I put thee in mind of.’ As notavi precedes in action memoro, the expression is an instance of “ὕστερον πρότερον” (R. § 948). Cf. Virg. Aen.II. 353, moriamur et in media arma ruamus.

pia, ‘loving,’ ‘kindly.’

814. This line, which occurs also in Fast.L. c., is taken from the first book of the Annales of Ennius.

caerula caeli. Cf. 793 n. The expression is Lucretian: see Munro on I. 1090. In Ennius templa is added.

817 [orbem Can.1, Bod. Urbem Can.7, I think rightly, (1) as the less common place, (2) as a reminiscence of Horace's terruit urbem. R.E. ]

equos. Cf. xiii.253 n.

Gradivus, a name of Mars, connected by some with gradior ‘the marcher,’ by others, as Haupt, with gravi-divus, ‘the terrible god.’ The first syllable is long as here, except in VI. 427. See Mayor on Juv.xiii. 113.For the chariot of Mars, cf. Virg. Aen.XII. 331-6.

verberis, in the literal sense of ‘lash,’ as in VII. 777 of the thong of a sling, excussae contorto verbere glandes.

pronus. Cf. Milt. P. l. V. 266, ‘down thither prone in flight he speeds.’

reddentem iura. Cf. XIII 25 n., Fast.ii. L. c. “est locus, antiqui Capreae dixere paludem: forte tuis illic, Romule, iura dabas.” According to the story as given in Livy (i. XVI. 1) Romulus was reviewing his troops.

suo iam Quiriti. For the collective force of the singular, cf. 354 n., xiii.253 n. The reference of iam has been doubted. It has been taken with Quiriti, Romulus being described as ruling over (see previous note) what was ‘now (by the accession of the Sabines) his Quirite people’ of Romans and Sabines. Cf. Liv. I. xiii. 5, Fast.IV. 855(of the Romans alone) tum iuvenem (sc. Remum) nondum facti flevere Quirites. It is unsafe on metrical grounds to take iam otherwise than with regia, when the same sense is got as by those who connect it with suo. Quiriti need not then be narrowed in reference to the Sabines only, as by Burmann, but may still be taken of the joint people, of which Romulus was now by the death of Tatius full king, as he had been formerly of the Romans alone. Polle has a quite different explanation, to which Zingerle refers apparently with approval. He connects iam with reddentem iura, to which he gives the sense of ‘surrendering his royal power,’ with reference to the story that Romulus proposed to abdicate and establish a commonwealth: “ἐδίδαξε καὶ τοὺς ἐν Ῥώμη δυνατοὺς ἀβασίλευτον ζητεῖν καὶ αὐτόνομον πολιτείαν(Plut. Rom. 27).

intabescere, ‘to melt.’ The same image of a bullet fused by its passage through the air is used

non secus exarsit quam cum Balearica plumbum
funda iacit: volat illud et incandescit eundo,
et quos non habuit, sub nubibus invenit ignes.

It is evidently taken from 178, ib. 306, where see Munro. Cf. Virg. Aen.IX. 588, Stat. Theb.X. 533.

subit, ‘succeeds’ comes up in place of the former. Cf. 617 n.

pulvinaribus altis, at the banquets of the gods, to which Romulus is now admitted, as Augustus afterwards, Hor. C. III. iii. 11. Juvenal (XIII. 42-6) speaks sarcastically of simpler times: “nulla super nubes convivia caelicolarum ... prandebat sibi quisque deus”.

trabeati, wearing the trabea, a robe of state with horizontal purple stripes, fastened by a fibula, worn especially by kings and augurs. Cf. Fast. VI. 375,lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus”. Korn thinks that reference is made to some wellknown image of the god, perhaps to that which stood in his temple restored B. C. 15.

Quirini. Cf. 607 n. Livy, who adopts the derivation of Quirites from Cures, does not mention the identification of Romulus with Quirinus. Cf. I. xvi. 8, with Seeley's note.

Irin, R. 170, (2). Cf. 85 n.

Hersiliam, a Sabine matron, wife of Romulus, Liv. I. xi. 2, or according to another story, of the Hostius Hostilius mentioned in Liv. I. xii., grandfather of Tullus Hostilius. Her apotheosis was related by Ennius in the first book of the Annales.

limite curvo, the rainbow. Cf. 838, XI. 590.

vacuae, ‘widowed,’ just as vidua is used sometimes of unmarried women, as in Livy, I. xlvi. 7.

o et de Latia. For the hiatus see Munro on P.S.l.G. § 257 and cf. V. 625"io Arethusa" vocavit "io Arethusa,"VIII. 310cumque Pheretiade et Hyanteo Iolao”.

viri in sense of hominis, a mortal husband, as opposed to Quirini.

colle, abl. of place where, Roby, § 1170.

templum, the temple dedicated to Romulus after his disappearance, Fast. II. 511:templa deo fiunt: collis quoque dictus ab illo est”.

namque introduces the reason for addressing Iris simply as dea. She is evidently a goddess, but Hersilia does not know which. So Virg. Aen. I. 328(Aeneas addressing his mother Venus disguised as a huntress),o dea certe: an Phoebi soror? an nympharum sanguinis una?

caelum accepisse, to have been deified. Cf. VI. 356, haustus aquae mihi nectar erit. For fatebor, the reading of Merkel [so Can.1, Can.7, Bod. R.E. ], cf. 151 n.

Thaumantea. Iris was the daughter of Thaumas and the Oceanid Electra, Hes. Theog. 265. For the spondaic rhythm cf. IV. 535, XI. 93, XV. 450 and see P.S.l.G. § 259, p. 526.

Hersilie, nom., crines being accus. with flagrans (Roby, § 1102). But the reading is very doubtful. The MSS. have Hersiliae crinis. Polle, who in 847 has in crinis, reads here Hersilia e terris, Zingerle Hersilia aerias. Edwards, following Postgate, has aetherias crinis, which according to Ehwald requires the further change of oras for auras. The descent of the miraculous fire upon Hersilia's head betokened her elevation to divine honour. Cf. Fast. VI. 635, Virg. Aen. II. 683, where see Henry.

notis, ‘familiar,’ known and loved. So Ceres seeking Proserpine, Fast. IV. 464,pressam noto pondere vidit humum”.

Horam. The name is found in Ennius with long quantity in the line “Quirine pater, veneror Horamque Quirini”, and may be the Latinised form of “῾Ώρα”, a personification of youth like Hebe. Lewis and Short suggest that it is an old form of hera.

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