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ibat. Gierig remarks on the frequent use of ire to express swift and violent motion, where a stronger word might be expected. Cf. 545, Hor. C. I. ii. 15.

incurvae carinae, ‘of the rounded hull.’ “Carina should be not the keel, but the hull or lower part of the hull.” Prof. Nettleship in Journal of Philology, vol. XII. (1883) p. 192, citing I. 298, B.c. III. 13, and the use of the verb carinare in Pliny XI. § 207. ‘The meaning of the word may perhaps help us to its etymology. I suspect that it is derived from the base cas- or car- = empty; compare careo, cas-sus, caries (properly = emptiness). Thus carina originally meant an empty husk or shell, a sense in which it is actually used by Pliny 15, 88, namque sunt bifidae putaminum carinae, nucleorumque alia quadripartita distinctio. The shape of a nut-shell may thus have suggested to the early Italians the construction of a rounded hull.” Cf. XI. 524, intra cava texta carinae, but in 552 the word is used of the keel only.

transtra. Zingerle reads igne, Riese tigno, a conjecture of Heinsius. [Can.7 and Bod. give transtra, D'Orv castra. R. E.].

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