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caelebs . . . truncus. So Horace (Hor. C. II. xv. 4) calls the plane caelebs, as being unfit for the training of vines. Besides the elm and poplar, the ash, fig and olive were thus used in the arbustum, and even the willow when no better tree could be had. For a description of the method, which is still in use in Italy, see Keightley on Virgil's Georgics, p. 352. Cf. Milton, P. l. V. 215-9: ‘‘they led the vine To wed her elm; she, spoused, about him twines Her marriageable arms, and with her brings Her dower, the adopted clusters, to adorn His barren leaves.’’

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