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ἀγαθῶν καὶ καλῶν: const. as preds. with ὄντων.

ἵλεως: see on i.1.9 fin.

βούλει, ἐθέλεις, ἐπιθυμεῖς: prob. no difference in meaning is intended.

θεραπευτέον: see on i. 2. 34. Note the double meaning of θεραπεύω with θεούς and γῆν, like the Lat. colere.

αὐτάς τε: the τέ is added, because the writer had in mind μαθητέον for both clauses, with some such obj. in the second as τὴν χρῆσιν αὐτῶν, instead of which, by a slight change of construction we have ὅπως αὐταῖς δεί χρῆσθαι ἀσκητέον. The whole idea is sufficiently rendered by our “military science and tactics.” εἰ δέ: after the sevenfold repetition of εἴτε, the emphatic concluding sent. is introduced with εἰ δέ. Cf. the Lat. si vero after sive.

τῇ γνώμῃ ὑπηρετεῖν: for when the body obeys the reason, it will do nothing which will interfere with its own best development. Cicero, in his version of this passage (“exercendum corpus et ita afficiendum est, ut oboedire consilio rationique possitDe Off. i. 23. 79), seems to have connected τῇ γνώμῃ ὑπηρετεῖν with δυνατός, rather than with what follows.

πόνοις, ἱδρῶτι: dats. of accompaniment. Cf. ‘in the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread’ Gen. iii. 19.

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