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ἑαυτοῖς: const. with τὰ συμφέροντα. This and the two other refl. prons. (ἑαυτοῖς, αὑτούς) in this section are equivalent to the reciprocal. Cf. 2.

ἀλλήλοις δικάζονται: the verb, as indicating strife, takes the dat., like φθονοῦσιν above. The fondness of the Athenians for litigation is evidenced by their numerous courts, and the large body of their extant forensic literature. Aristophanes lashed this love of lawsuits in his Wasps.

συνωφελοῦντες: for the circumstantial participle of means, see on i.1.9.

αὖ: item, with reference to διαφέρονται and δικάζονται.

ταῖς ... χαίρουσιν: “they delight especially in having their faculties trained for such strife.”

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