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ἐπειδὰν ἐν χειμῶνι τράπηται: sc. at the winter solstice, when the sun begins to move northward, or ‘toward us.’

ἁδρύνοντα: ripening.

ὧν καιρὸς διελήλυθεν: whose time of maturity has passed; e.g., hay or grain left standing in the fields.

ἀποτρέπεσθαι: sc. at the summer solstice.

γένηται ἔνθα: reaches that point, where.

εἰ ἄπεισιν: most vivid form of protasis. G. 1405; H. 899. This has the ‘minatory’ force suggested by Gildersleeve; see Trans. Am. Philol. Assn., vii. p. 13. For the pres. of εἶμι in fut. sense, see G. 1257; H. 828 a.

ἀποπαγησόμεθα: for the second fut. pass., see G. 715; H. 474.

καὶ ἐνταῦθα: refers to the position of the sun in both winter and summer. Xenophon's knowledge of astronomy was, of course, that of his time; but his description is fairly correct. Even modern astronomers conform to popular usage in speaking of the sun's ‘rising and setting,’ ‘approaching’ and ‘receding from’ the earth.

ἀναστρέφεσθαι: versari, stays, in its apparent daily circuit round the earth.

ἔοικε γιγνομένοις: “looks like something taking place.”

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