previous next

Closely connected with εὐσέβεια and δικαιοσύνη, which should form the foundations of human training, is ἐγκράτεια (self-mastery), which alone enables a man to keep a practical grasp of life. Self-mastery enables a man not only to work successfully but also to enjoy thoroughly all true pleasures.

ἐγκράτειαν ὑπάρχειν ἀγαθὸν εἶναι: it was a good thing for self-control to belong to. ἐγκράτειαν ὑπάρχειν is subj. of εἶναι.

μάλιστα πάντων: above all men, belongs to the subj., while πάντων μάλιστα below is equivalent to above everything, and is connected with ἐγκράτειαν.

ἀεὶ μὲν οὖν κτλ.: “he both himself always kept in mind the things conducive to virtue.” Const. περί with μεμνημένος, and for the participle with διατελέω, see on iv.2.4.

κτῆμα ἐλευθερίαν: note the emphatic juxtaposition of this pred. and subject.

οἷόν τέ γε: see on iv.2.11.

μάλιστα: sc. καλὸν καὶ μεγαλεῖον.

τῶν διὰ τοῦ σώματος ἡδονῶν: see on i.5.6.

ἥκιστα: “far from it.”

ἐλευθέριον: pred., fitting a freeman.

εἶτα: see on ii.2.14.

τοὺς κωλύσοντας: for τούς with the fut. participle, see on τοὺς τάξοντας iii. 4. 4.

ποιεῖν: for the inf. with verbs of hindering, see on πορεύεσθαι i. 6. 6.

εἰκότως: naturally.

οὐδὲν ἧττον : just as much as.

ταῦτα, ἐκεῖνα: sc. ποιεῖν. But cf. τὰ κάκιστα ἀναγκάζοντας in 5, and see on φροντίζοντας i. 1. 11.

ποίους τινάς: see on τοιάδε τις i. 1. 1.

ἡγῇ: sc. εἶναι.

παρά: lit. with, at the house of; here (to follow Eng. idiom), under.

δουλείαν δουλεύουσιν: suffer slavery. For the cognate acc., see on ἀγῶνας ἐνίκων ii. 6. 26.

σοφίαν, τὸ μέγιστον ἀγαθόν: for the views of Socrates on the summum bonum, see Introd. § 19.— οὐ δοκεῖ σοι κτλ.: const. οὐ δοκεῖ σοι ( ἀκρασία) κωλύειν καὶ ποιεῖν.

προσέχειν τοῖς ὠφελοῦσι: from attending to useful things.

αἰσθανομένους: even when they have a perception.

ἐκπλήξασα: by bewildering them. Cf. ἐξίστησιν i. 3. 12.

σωφροσύνης τίνι ἧττον προσήκειν: who has a less share of discretion? For the gen. with verbs of sharing, see G. 1097, 2; H. 737.

αὐτὰ τὰ ἐναντία: pred., the direct opposites (of each other).

τοῦ ἐπιμελεῖσθαι: objective gen. with κωλυτικώτερον.

ὧν προσήκει: “duties.”

τοῦ ποιοῦντος, πείθοντος, ἀναγκάζοντος: for the participle used substantively, see on τὸ κρατοῦν i. 2. 43.

τοῖς σωφρονοῦσι τὰ ἐναντία: the opposite of what prudent men do. For the condensed form of expression, see on θεοῖς ταῦτα πάντα ἔοικε iv. 4. 24.

οἴει τι: the τὶ shows that the preceding participles are neuter.

οὐκοῦν κτλ.: const. οὐκοῦν εἰκὸς (ἐστὶ) τὴν ἐγκράτειαν αἰτίαν εἶναι τῶν ἐναντίων τὴν ἀκρασίαν.

τῶν ἐναντίων : of the opposite of what.

ἄριστον: for the gender, see on χρησιμώτερον ii. 3. 1.

ὅτι καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ ἡδέα κτλ.: that even to those pleasures to which alone intemperance seems to lead men, it really cannot lead them. ἀκρασία is lack of self-control, the exact opposite of ἐγκράτεια.

πῶς: how so?

ὥσπερ: inasmuch as.

ἔστιν: it is possible.

περιμείναντας, ἀνασχομένους: circumstantial participles of manner, explaining καρτερεῖν, and belonging to its subj. (sc. ἀνθρώπους).

ὡς ἔνι ἥδιστα: see on iii.8.4. From οὐκ ἐῶσα to γένηται may be regarded as a parenthesis explanatory of κωλύει.

τοῖς ἀναγκαιοτάτοις τε καὶ συνεχεστάτοις: the most natural and most continuous pleasures.

ἥδεσθαι ἀξίως μνήμης: to have any pleasure worth recalling.

ἀλλὰ μήν: see on i.1.6.

τοῦ μαθεῖν, τοῦ ἐπιμεληθῆναι: gens. of source with ἀπολαύουσι. G. 1130; H. 750.

πράττοντες αὐτά: “in the very act of practicing them” (sc. τὸ μαθεῖν καὶ τὸ ἐπιμελεῖσθαι).

προσήκειν: as in 7.

κατεχομένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ σπουδάζειν περί: “wholly occupied in the pursuit of.”

τὰς ἐγγυτάτω ἡδονάς: i.e. pleasures of the moment. Cf. αἱ ἐκ τοῦ παραχρῆμα ἡδοναί ii. 1. 20.

ἥττονι τῶν ἡδονῶν: under subjection to the pleasures. Cf. ἥττω γαστρός i. 5. 1.

τί γάρ: (sc. quite right,) for in what respect.

ἀλλά: atqui.

οὕτως: i.e. by self-control, and that discretion which carefully distinguishes the good from the bad, and cherishes it.

διαλέγεσθαι, διαλέγοντας: in the act. form, this verb means to pick out, select; διαλέγεσθαι is to converse, then, specifically, “to arrive at truth by discussion.” For the lofty estimate placed on ‘dialectic’ by Plato, cf. ἆρ᾽ οὖν δοκεῖ σοι, ἔφην ἐγώ, ὥσπερ θριγκὸς (a coping stone) τοῖς μαθήμασιν διαλεκτικὴ ἡμῖν ἐπάνω κεῖσθαι, καὶ οὐκέτ᾽ ἄλλο τούτου μάθημα ἀνωτέρω ὀρθῶς ἂν ἐπιτίθεσθαι, ἀλλ̓ ἔχειν ἤδη τέλος τὰ τῶν μαθημάτων; Ἔμοιγ̓, ἔφη Rep. 534 E.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: