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τὸ μανθάνειν: obj. of ἀπέτρεπεν.

μέχρι τοῦ κτλ.: in appos. with μέχρι τούτου, with emphatic repetition of the μέχρι.

καί (in line 31): even.

τὰ μὴ ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ περιφορᾷ: i.e. planets, comets, etc., having motions in a different plane from the general apparent movement of the stars; cf. the ‘cycle and epicycle, orb in orb’ of Raphael's speech to Adam in Milton's Paradise Lost, viii. 84.

πλάνητας: planets, lit. wanderers.

ἀσταθμήτους ἀστέρας: prob. comets, as having no apparent fixed place.

ζητοῦντας κατατρίβεσθαι: to wear ourselves out investigating. For the supplementary participle, see G. 1580; H. 983.

ἰσχυρῶς ἀπέτρεπεν: he strongly dissuaded from.

οὐδὲ τούτων ἀνήκοος ἦν: Archelaus, a pupil of Anaxagoras, is said to have taught Socrates astronomy.

ἱκανά: as in 3.

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