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ἐπεὶ τὸ ἄρχειν ἥδιστον] ‘ut res plana certaque ponitur’. Victorius. However, it may most readily be deduced from the innate love of power, already indicated in §§ 14, 22, q. v. To this natural impulse or emotion is traced the pleasure that is derived from ‘wisdom’, or the reputation of it—this is not the same as the pleasure of learning or acquiring knowledge, but that of possessing and exercising it, or the influence which the reputation of it carries with it—Now ‘wisdom’ may be understood in two senses; ‘practical wisdom’, φρόνησις, τὸ φρονεῖν, which is pleasant to possess and exercise because it implies power, in the shape of influence over the actions of others; and ‘speculative wisdom’, σοφία, which gratifies our love of wonder, § 21, because it brings with it the knowledge of all sorts of things that are interesting and curious (and therefore objects of wonder). One would have supposed that the love of taxing, censuring, or finding fault with our neighbours and friends, ἐπιτιμᾷν, is directly traceable to the pleasure of exercising power so frequently noticed before. Here however an intermediate step is introduced between the feeling and its real origin. This is the love of honour. Censuring and finding fault implies an advantageous contrast between ourselves and those whom we thus ‘tax’, a superiority in judgment or virtue, which gives us the right to find fault; and the honour we all love is reflected upon ourselves by the contrast. But the pleasure lies ultimately not in the honour itself, but in the superiority that respect and the outward signs of it indicate.

MS A^{c} here adds καὶ τὸ ἄρχειν after ἡδὺ εἶναι, adopted by Spengel. It would mean of course the general exercise of authority, an extension of the special ἐπιτιμᾷν, and analogous to it, as manifested in various modes of punishment or correction by word and deed. And herein would lie the distinction. The private citizen can only find fault (viz. with his tongue); the ruler can inflict actual penalties, personal or pecuniary.

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