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The received text followed by Bekker and Spengel puts a full stop at ἐλπίζει [p. 206, line 3]. (The latter editor has also adopted the reading of MS A^{c} ἀεὶ ἐν for κἄν). With this punctuation, κἂν τῷ μεμνημένῳἐλπίζει must be the apodosis, and the argument runs thus: ‘If pleasure consists in sensation, and φαντασία is a kind of sensation, then (assuming that there is pleasure in memory and anticipation) memory and anticipation must be always accompanied by a mental impression of what is remembered or anticipated’—pleasure being the middle term, without which the supposed apodosis will not follow from the premisses. But this is not what Aristotle undertakes to shew; and also it assumes first what is proved in the next sentence, viz. that pleasure does accompany memory and anticipation. Surely Victorius and Vater are right in supposing the apodosis of the entire sentence, ἐπεὶ κ.τ.λ. to be δῆλον ὅτικαὶ αἴσθησις, which is in fact what Aristotle here wishes to establish. Substitute a colon for the full stop: retain κἂν (for καὶ ἐν) instead of ἀεὶ ἐν; and understand the first three clauses ἐπεὶἐλπίζει, as three distinct and independent propositions, the basis of the conclusion which follows; εἰ δὲ τοῦτο is a repetition in sum of the foregoing, ‘if all this, I say, be so’, (δέ is appropriate in a resumption of what has been just said, note on I 1. 11); if pleasure is a mode of sensation, if φαντασία is a feeble kind of sensation, and if memory and hope are attended by a φαντασία or mental impression of that which is remembered or hoped (some phenomenon past or future, the former a fact, the latter an imagination), it follows that pleasure, which is sensation, accompanies the memory of the past and the anticipation of the future because φαντασία does, which is a form of sensation, ἐπείπερ καὶ αἴσθησις1. In this case κἄν is to be retained in preference to ἀεὶ ἐν. The latter necessarily makes the clause that it introduces, the apodosis; καὶ ἐν merely couples this with the preceding premisses. The mood ἀκολουθοῖ ἄν, which might seem objectionable in the mere statement of a proposition, must be considered as a qualified statement of the fact, ‘will be likely to attend’; only so much can be affirmed.

φαντασία] which is here called a ‘sort of feeble sensation’, is described otherwise in the psychology of the de Anima. It is defined Γ 3, 429 a 1, φαντασία ἂν εἴη κίνησις ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσθήσεως τῆς κατ᾽ ἐνέργειαν γιγνομένη (for γιγνομένης, Trendelenburg and Torstrik), not, therefore, a mode of sensation as here, but a motion generated by sensation in active exercise: and again 428 a 1, φαντασία καθ᾽ ἣν λέγομεν φάντασμά τι ἡμῖν γίγνεσθαι: ‘the presentative faculty’ (Sir W. Hamilton). It is a faculty intermediate between sensation and memory, and thus becomes connected with the intellect; the seat of memory is τὸ πρῶτον αἰσθητικόν, viz. the heart, where the results of sensation are all collected in a focus, and thence transmitted to the mind. The memory is defined, de memoria, c. 1, ult. 451 a 15, φαντάσματος, ὡς εἰκόνος οὗ φάντασμα, ἕξις; which represents it as a state (in the heart, or the appropriate organ) of the impression φάντασμα, transferred by the faculty of φαντασία from the sensation itself, which (the impression) is the representation (the εἰκών) of the real object of sense, that of which it is the φάντασμα. The office of the φαντασία is therefore to convey the impressions of the actual objects of sense delivered to it by sensation, and to impress or print them on the organ fitted for their reception; when thus impressed or ‘represented’ they become memory, and so are passed on to the intellect. To compare with what is said in the Rhetoric, of this φαντασία being a sort of feeble sensation, we have in the de Anima, Γ 3, 428 b 11, what almost (not quite) justifies it, ἐπειδὴ... δὲ φαντασία κίνησίς τις δοκεῖ εἶναι καὶ οὐκ ἄνευ αἰσθήσεως γίγνεσθαι ἀλλ᾽ αἰσθανομένοις καὶ ὧν αἴσθησίς ἐστιν, ἔστι δὲ γίνεσθαι κίνησιν ὑπὸ τῆς ἐνεργείας τῆς αἰσθήσεως, καὶ ταύτην ὁμοίαν ἀνάγκη εἶναι τῇ αἰσθήσει, εἴη ἂν αὕτη κίνησις οὔτε ἄνευ αἰσθήσεως ἐνδεχομένη οὔτε μὴ αἰσθανομένοις ὑπάρχειν...καὶ εἶναι καὶ ἀληθῆ καὶ ψευδῆ. Though thus closely allied with sensation, and dependent upon it, the φαντασία is not a faculty of mere sensation, but belongs equally to the intellect, φαντασία ἅπασα λογιστικὴ αἰσθητική, de Anima Γ 10 ult. 433 b 29, (being apparently intermediate between them and partaking of the nature of both); of which (intellect), when we take the whole of it, the διάνοια as well as the νοῦς, into account, the φαντασία actually forms a part; c. 3, 427 b 28, τούτου δὲ (τοῦ νοεῖν) τὸ μὲν φαντασία δοκεῖ εἶναι τὸ δὲ ὑπόληψις. ‘Imaginatio inter sensuum perceptiones et mentis cogitationes media intericitur, ut imaginatio sensibus, mens imaginatione egeat.’ Trendelenburg ad de Anima III 3, 4, p. 453. On the various relations of the φαντασία, see the notes of the same Comm. ad de Anima, pp. 166, 462, 538, also Bonitz on Metaph. A 1, 980 b 26, p. 38, Waitz ad Org. 100 b 27, Vol. II, p. 440. [Ueber den Begriff des Wortes φαντασία bei Aristoteles. J. Freudenthal (Göttingen) 1863, pp. 59. S.]

1 That pleasure is attendant upon every act of sensation is stated in Eth. Nic. X 4, 1174 b 21, κατὰ πασᾶν γὰρ αἴσθησίν ἐστιν ἡδονή, and again, line 27, καθ᾽ ἑκάστην δ̓ αἴσθησιν ὅτι γίνεται ἡδονὴ δῆλον. But this is not the same thing as the statement of the Rhetoric which identifies the two, just as Eudemus in the 7th book of the Nic. Eth. identifies pleasure with the ἐνέργειαι, of which in Aristotle's 10th book it is only the concomitant. And there is a precisely similar overstatement here of the nature of the φαντασία, as compared with the description of it in the de Anima, where it is said to be a kind of sensation, instead of closely connected with it. See the following note, on φαντασία.

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