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καὶ οἷς] is no doubt masc., as it is through the whole series of these topics, and in accordance with οἱ γὰρ ἀκρατεῖς τοιοῦτοι that follows. Otherwise it would be more naturally and conveniently translated in this and the following section as neuter, ‘in all cases where’.... ‘And all those who have the pleasure (consequent on their action) immediately, and the pain comes afterwards; or the profit at once and the penalty later: because this suits the character of the ἀκρατεῖς who are devoid of self-control, and this vice extends (beyond mere pleasure) to every object of man's aims and aspirations’, to profit as well as pleasure. And therefore wherever there is immediate pleasure or profit, and only subsequent pain or loss, the ἀκρατεῖς whose character is to be tempted by present pleasure and profit, though at the expense of future pain and loss, are naturally in all such cases prone to wrong-doing. What is here said of ἀκρατής and ἀκρασία is confirmed by Eth. Nic. VII 2, ult. ἔτι ἀκρατεῖς λέγονται καὶ θυμοῦ καὶ τιμῆς καὶ κέρδους, though, as the λέγονται shews, this is only a popular way of speaking (and therefore suited to Rhetoric): and in VII 6, 1147 b 31, seq. we are told that these are not ἁπλῶς ἀκρατεῖς, ἀκρασία proper being περὶ τὰς σωματικὰς ἀπολαύσεις, limited to the same class of objects as ἀκολασία; and ὁ τῶν τε ἡδέων διώκων τὰς ὑπερβολὰς καὶ τῶν λυπηρῶν φεύγων, πείνης καὶ δίψης καὶ ἀλέας καὶ ψύχους καὶ πάντων τῶν περὶ ἁφὴν καὶ γεῦσιν, παρὰ τὴν τροαίρεσιν καὶ τὴν διάνοιαν, ἀκρατὴς λέγεται.
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