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‘First, people that have what we want, either in respect of necessity or excess (superfluity), or of sensual enjoyment, whether remote or near; for the acquisition of the one is speedy, the vengeance of the other tardy: as when we Greeks spoil the Carthaginians’. ‘We Greeks’ are pirates. Comp. Pol. II 7, 1267 a 2, οὐ μόνον δ᾽ οἱ ἄνθρωποι διὰ τἀναγκαῖα ἀδικοῦσιν,...ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅπως χαίρωσι καὶ μὴ ἐπιθυμῶσι (this is the craving after superfluities out of mere wantonness of appetite)...οὐ τοίνυν διὰ ταύτην μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἂν ἐπιθυμοῖεν ἵνα χαίρωσι ταῖς ἄνευ λυπῶν ἡδοναῖς. τί οὖν ἄκος τῶν τριῶν τούτων; κ.τ.λ. The difference of the two last of these lies in this, that the one is the desire caused by the painful gap to supply the deficiency; the other is a desire of pleasures which have no such painful craving attendant upon them, such are the pleasures of taste, learning, knowledge, and, in general, intellectual pleasures. The cure recommended for this vicious desire is philosophy, which may be obtained from within and δἰ αὐτοῦ, without any extraneous aid. It seems therefore that this division does not exactly coincide with that of the Rhetoric, though there is a strong resemblance between them.

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