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καὶ τοὺς ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων μέλλοντας (ἀδικεῖσθαι), ἂν μὴ αὐτοὶ (ἀδικῶσιν αὐτούς)] Another motive in the aggressor to commit a wrong, another circumstance which renders its intended object especially liable to it, arises, when the victim is in such a position that the wrong will be done by somebody else (ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων) if we don't do it ourselves, or take the initiative—this seems to us a justification of the act of aggression which in other circumstances would be a gross wrong—and the necessity of immediate action allows no time for deliberation. That this is a sort of justification of such an act appears in the conduct attributed to Ænesidemus towards Gelo: the latter (tyrant of Syracuse) had anticipated him (the tyrant of Leontini) in reducing and enslaving some state that was neighbour of both: Aenesidemus sends a present to Gelo of eggs, cakes, and sweetmeats, the ordinary prize of the game of κότταβος, as a prize, in acknowledgment of his superior foresight, quickness and dexterity, shewn in his ‘anticipation’ of himself, ὅτι ἔφθασεν, admitting at the same time that he had had an eye to it himself. This shows that Aenesidemus thought it ‘hardly a crime’, ἐγγὺς τοῦ μὴ ἀδικεῖν, a justifiable act; and also illustrates the extreme liability to aggression and wrong involved in the position of this ‘neighbouring state’, which would have been wronged in any case by some one else, ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων μέλλοντας, at any rate, even if Gelo (who here represents the αὐτοί, the man who takes the initiative) had not done it himself.

As Casaubon has observed, there is some object understood after ἀνδραποδισαμένῳ. The simple τινάς or τινὰ πόλιν, will answer the purpose. Nothing more is known about the circumstances of the case.

The person here called Αἰνεσίδημος, in Herod. Αἰνησίδημος, and in Pindar Αἰνησίδαμος, is mentioned twice in Herodotus, VII 154 as the son of one Patäicus, and a member of the body-guard of Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, and in c. 165, as the father of Thero, sovereign (μούναρχος) of Agrigentum, to whom Pindar's second Olympian Ode is dedicated. In Pindar his name occurs three times, but only as the father of Thero, Ol. II 46, III 9, and of him and Xenocrates, Isthm. II 41. To reconcile Herodotus' statement about him with that of Aristotle here, we may perhaps suppose that Aenesidemus had made himself master of Agrigentum, on the throne of which he was succeeded by his son Thero, before the period to which this story belongs. Aristotle's narrative certainly represents him as a sovereign prince, and not as a mere mercenary in another's service. Victorius, followed by Schrader, calls him ‘tyrant of Leontini’, but gives no authority.

κοττάβια] On the game of κότταβος, the modes of playing it, and its varieties, see Becker, Charicles, on the Greek Games, Excursus III to Sc. VI, p. 349. Our information upon the subject is principally derived from Athen. XI 58, p. 479 C—E, and XV 1, 665 seq., and Pollux VI 109. We learn from Athenaeus, on the authority of Dicaearchus (479 D) that it was a Sicilian invention and most fashionable in that country, (cf. XV 666 B), τῶν κοττάβων εὕρεσις Σικελική ἐστι παιδιά, ταύτην πρώτων εὑρόντων Σικελῶν. Further we are told that the winner at the game received a prize, 667 D, ὅτι δὲ ἆθλον προὔκειτο τῷ εὖ προεμ̀ένῳ τὸν κότταβον προείρηκε μὲν καὶ Ἀντιφάνης: ᾠὰ γάρ ἐστι καὶ πεμμάτια καὶ τραγήματα. Similarly from Hegesander, 479 D, τοσαύτη δὲ ἐγένετο σπουδὴ περὶ τὸ ἐπιτήδευμα ὥστε εἰς τὰ συμπόσια παρεισφέρειν ἆθλα κοττάβια καλούμενα. From Gaisford's observation that the form κοττάβεια occurs in at least three verses, in Ath. XV 666 E, 667 F, it seems that both this and κοττάβιον were in use. Gaisford unnecessarily infers from it that there was only one, and that κοττάβειον.

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