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Again, the possibility is increased, the attempt becomes easier, if they are friends either of the objects of the wrong, those whom they propose to injure, or of the judges who would have to try the case if brought before them: for friends are off their guard (lit. unguarded), and thereby particularly exposed to injury and wrong, and moreover are inclined to come to terms or to be reconciled without ‘prosecuting’ the case, or bringing it before a court of justice; and judges are ready to oblige their friends, and either let them off altogether, or inflict a very slight penalty (so fair and upright were the Athenian dicasts).

οἱ...φίλοι ἀφύλακτοι κ.τ.λ.] This sounds very atrocious, and certainly has a highly immoral appearance on the face of it. But we are to recollect that the author told us in his apology for Rhetoric in the preface that such suggestions are to be regarded only as exemplifications of the theory of the art, which argues each side of every question indifferently without regard to moral considerations: but in practice, though the rhetorician as such can employ immoral arguments, no honest rhetorician would have recourse to them. Rhetoric does not profess to teach virtue; that must be learned aliunde. This is Aristotle's view of the matter: the Sophists, who, as we are expressly told, identified the study of Rhetoric with a general, political education, had no such excuse or justification for the immoralities of their Rhetoric, which they inculcated without alloy.

προσκαταλλάττονται]καὶ πρὸς, et praeterea. pessime vulgo προσκαταλλάττονται’. Gaisford. Bekker and Spengel retain the vulgate, to which there is no possible objection. καταλλάττεσθαι alone, it is true, conveys all that is necessary to the sense, the reconciliation namely; but πρός is very often added to a verb, simple or compound, to express ‘direction’ to an object, as προσεντείνειν πληγάς, Dem. c. Mid. 528. 25; προσευθύνειν, Ar. Pol. VII (VI) 8, 1322 b 9; and particularly with verbs that imply conciliation or reconciliation, as προσχωρεῖν Thuc. I 103, IV 71, ‘to come over to a side’, προσάγεσθαι, ‘to bring over to one, to conciliate’. Isocr. Nicocl. § 22, θεραπείας προσαγάγεσθαι. Thuc. III 43, ἀπάτῃ προσάγεσθαι τὸ πλῆθος, III 48, μήτε οἴκτῳ μήτ᾽ ἐπιεικείᾳ, οἷς οὐδὲ ἐγὼ ἐῶ προσάγεσθαι (to be won over). προσίεσθαι et similia. So here the compound verb καταλλάττεσθαι denotes the mutual settlement of the disputed points, and the additional πρός the conciliation, being won over, which attends it.

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