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διωρίσθω] See on I 11. 29, p. 224. κρίσεις φανεραί] ‘decisions, judgments, published, or notorious’. Quint. V 11. 36, Adhibetur extrinsecus in causam et auctoritas. Haec secuti Graecos, a quibus κρίσεις dicuntur, iudicia aut iudicationes vocant ...si quid ita visum gentibus, populis, sapientibus viris, claris civibus, illustribus poetis (all γνώριμοι,) referri potest. οἷον Ἀθηναῖοι Ὁμήρῳ μάρτυρι ἐχρήσαντο περὶ Σαλαμῖνος] Quint. u. s. § 40 (as an instance of the appeals to ‘authorities’ mentioned in § 36), Neque est ignobile exemplum, Megareos ab Atheniensibus, quum de Salamine contenderent victos Homeri versu, qui tamen ipse non in omni editione reperitur, significans Aiacem naves suas Atheniensibus iunxisse. The ‘versus’ or rather two verses here in question are, Il. B 557—8, [Αἴας δ᾽ ἐκ Σαλαμῖνος ἄγεν δυοκαίδεκα νῆας, στῆσε δ̓ ἄγων, ἵν̓ Ἀθηναίων ἵσταντο φάλαγγες] which were quoted by Solon (and said to have been interpolated by him in the text of Homer for that purpose, Diogenes Laertius, Vit. Sol. § 48) as an ‘authority’ in favour of the Athenian claim to the possession of Salamis. See Heyne, Paley, and Trollope's notes on the passage of Homer, Plut. Vit. Sol. c. 10, Strabo, Attica, IX 1. Plutarch says that the current opinion in his time attributed the interpolation of the line (the second of the two) to Solon, though the Athenians denied it: in Strabo's time it was condemned by the critics: he enters at length into the question, and gives the reasons for rejecting the verse. Another well-known instance of the authority of a γνώριμος, or distinguished man, is the proverbial αὐτὸς ἔφα, ipse dixit, of the disciples of Pythagoras. καὶ Τενέδιοι ἔναγχος κ.τ.λ.] Of this event, ‘recent’ at the time of Aristotle's writing, nothing more is known than we learn from this passage. ‘Ex verbis his colligo’, says Victorius, ‘Tenedi insulae incolas cum Sigeensibus disceptantes usos et ipsos prisco teste Periandro: qui, quamvis multis antea saeculis mortuus esset, poema reliquerat quo praecepta quaedam ad beate vivendum, ὑποθῆκαι vocatae a Graecis, continebantur. Laertius qui vitam ipsius scripsit hoc narrat: in eo autem, ut suspicari licet, aliquid fuit quod causam Tenediorum adiuvaret.’ Κλεοφῶν] a mischievous profligate demagogue, who took a leading part in public affairs at Athens during the latter years of the Peloponnesian War. He was tried and condemned by the Council during the siege of Athens in 405 B.C. One of the results of the political rivalry between him and Critias, one of the leaders of the opposite party, was this charge which he brought against him, at some time not ascertained. The various references to him in Aristophanes, Xenophon, and the Orators, will be found in the article on him in Smith's Dict. of Biography, and other particulars respecting his habits and character in Meineke, Fragm. Com. Graec. 1 p. 171 seq, in the account of the play bearing his name, which Plato the Comic poet wrote to assail him. Κριτίου] The person accused by Cleophon was the well-known oli garchical leader, one of the thirty tyrants, maternal uncle of Plato the philosopher, and great-grand-nephew of Solon, Plat. Charm. 155 A. He was son of Callaeschrus, ibid. 153 C, who was the son of another Critias, son of Dropides, brother of Solon. Comp. Tim. 20 E. Cleophon, in his accusation, took occasion to quote ‘as from an authority’ some elegiac verses of Solon from whose family he was descended, to shew that reckless licentiousness was hereditary in the race. ἀσελγής] Hesychius ἀκόλαστος, ἀκάθαρτος. Gram. ap. Bekk. Anecd. I 451, ἀσελγές, πᾶν τὸ σφοδρὸν καὶ βίαιον. καὶ ἀσέλγεια ἡ μετ᾽ ἐπηρεασμοῦ καὶ θρασύτητος βία. καὶ ἀσελγὴς ὁ ἀνάγωγος (intractable, unmanageable, like ‘unbroken’ horses and dogs, Xenophon, from ἄγειν, ‘to train or educate’). Δημοσθένης (c. Mid. 521. 2), καὶ ὁ κωμικός. Ὥσπερ ἀνέμου ἐξαίφνης ἀσελγοῦς γενομένου (Eupolis, Fr. Inc. XXV. Meineke, Vol. II. p. 558). οἷον αὐτόπνιγος (or τὸ πνῖγος) ὡς ἀσελγής (Pherecr. Fragm. Inc. XXIX. Meineke, II 348). ἀσελγὲς σκῶμμα, Eupolis, bis. Hence it appears that the primary sense of the word is ‘untamed or untameable’, from a and θελγειν (on the analogy of ἀμιγής ‘unmixed’, one who cannot be soothed, charmed, tamed; hence violent, extravagant, excessive—Arist. Plut. 559, παρὰ τῷ μὲν (πλούτῳ) γὰρ ποδαγρῶντες καὶ γαστρώδεις καὶ παχύκνημοι καὶ πίονές εἰσιν ἀσελγῶς, ‘extravagantly fat’—and specially in the indulgence of the appetites and passions, reckless in character and conduct; licentious, profligate to excess. Arist. Pol. VIII (V) 5, sub init. διὰ τὴν τῶν δημαγωγῶν ἀσέλγειαν, ‘license’ in conduct; ib. c. 6, 1305 b 40, γίγνονται δὲ μεταβολαὶ τῆς ὀλιγαρχίας καὶ ὅταν ἀναλώσωσι τὰ ἴδια ζῶντες ἀσελγῶς, ‘by a life of reckless extravagance’. Plat. Rep. IV 424 E (the word is rare in Plato). Demosth. Olynth. II 23. 19, Phil. IV. 131. 11, c. Mid. 521. 2 u. s., ap. eundem ἀσελγῶς ζῇν, διακεῖσθαι, διάγειν τὸν βίον, χρῆσθαί τινι. εἰπεῖν μοι] This, and the following line of Solon's elegy, is quoted, with two variations from Aristotle's version, by Proclus ad Tim. 20 E, εἰπέμεναι Κριτίῃ ξανθότριχι πατρὸς ἀκούειν: οὐ γὰρ ἁμαρτινόῳ πείσεται ἡγεμόνι, the father of Critias being Solon's brother, Dropides. These verses, which were probably intended by the author as a compliment to the father, are misconstrued by the malicious Cleophon into a reflection on the son, whose recklessness and licentiousness had brought upon him his father's displeasure: the authority of Solon is appealed to to shew that the grandson inherited his grandfather's vices. Whether πυῤῥότριχι is another malicious perversion of Cleophon, on the hypothesis that red hair implies a licentious disposition, or depravity in general—as seems to have been the opinion of the Normans, who had the proverb, entre poil roux et félonie s'entreportent grant compagnie, (Wace, Roman de Rou, quoted by Sir F. Palgrave, Hist. of Norm. II 721)—or Aristotle, quoting from memory, has misquoted, more suo, cannot now be ascertained. At all events it is unlikely that Solon intended any such imputation on Critias' character, whatever may have been the case with Cleophon; for Critias is evidently considered as a boy or very young man from the tone of the address or message, and Victorius shews from Theocr. Id. VIII. 3, ἄμφω τώγ᾽ ἤτην πυῤῥοτρίχω, ἄμφω ἀνάβω, that red hair in a boy in the eyes of the Greeks was a beauty and not a deformity. It seems to me that Solon wrote ξανθότριχι, as Proclus gives it, and that the other reading is due either to Cleophon's malice if we interpret it in deterius, or to Aristotle's want of memory, if we take it as synonymous with ξανθότριχι. The evidence of Critias' ἀσέλγεια derived from the verses is plainly a false inference of Cleophon and not really contained in the original: the statement in Plat. Charm. 157 E, that Solon wrote Elegies in praise of ‘the house of Critias’, and spoke of its members as ‘distinguished by personal beauty and virtue and all other so-called happiness’, is altogether against any such supposition. Victorius, who regards the inference drawn by Cleophon as justified by the language of the verses, endeavours to reconcile this with the eulogistic character of the elegy, by the remark that Critias may have been an exception to the general good character of his family. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr. p. 331, follows Proclus' version. The other variation, εἰπεῖν μοι, and εἰπέμεναι, may be either another slip of Aristotle's memory, or εἰπεῖν μοι a mere false reading of εἰπέμεναι, the one being very easily mistaken for the other. Lastly, μοί, if it were retained, would be a good example of the dativus ethicus corresponding in Greek to the familiar use of ‘me’ in the earlier English writers: as Shakespeare, Rob me the treasury; He smiled me in the face (Dame Quickly of Falstaff); See how this river comes me cranking in (Hotspur). [Abbott's Shaksp. Gr. § 220. S.]
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