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On this definition of Rhetoric, see Introd. pp. 33—4; and note on paraphrase, p. 149: on the other current definitions of it, Ib. pp. 27—36. On Rhetoric as a δύναμις, Ib. p. 14 seq.

ὑποκείμενον] on I 1, 12 p. 24 supra.

ὑγιεινόν] Three different senses of this word are distinguished, Top. A 15, 106 b 35, τὸ ὑγιεινὸν πλεοναχῶς, τὸ μὲν ὑγιείας ποιητικόν, τὸ δὲ φυλακτικόν, τὸ δὲ σημαντικόν.

τὰ συμβεβηκότα πάθη τοῖς μεγέθεσι] These are usually called συμβεβηκότα καθ᾽ αὑτά in Aristotle's terminology, i.e. absolute, necessary consequences (rather than accidents) of the essence or definition of a thing. The ordinary συμβεβηκότα are separable accidents, qualities or properties, which do not form part of this essence of the subject, or consequently of its definition; with or without which the essence of the subject, (that which constitutes its being, or makes it to be what it is,) remains the same. The συμβεβηκότα καθ᾽ αὑτά are distinguished from the ordinary συμβεβηκότα in this; that although they are not of the essence, and therefore do not enter into the definition, still they are immediately deducible from it, and inseparable from the subject, and are therefore the proper objects of study. They are in fact identifiable with the ἴδια or propria of the five predicables. The συμβεβηκότα πάθη τοῖς μεγέθεσι in the text are accordingly ‘the inseparable properties of magnitudes’; as ‘the equality of the interior angles of a triangle to two right angles’ is a necessary property of the triangle, though not included in the definition, which is ‘a plane figure bounded by three straight lines’: still the property is deducible from the definition, and thus is inseparable from the notion of it: the triangle cannot exist without this property, though it is not of its essence, and therefore not part of the definition. This example is given in de Anima I 1 § 8, 402 b 19. See the whole section. And again de part. Anim. I 3, 10 συμβεβηκὸς γάρ τι (καθ᾽ αὑτὸ) τῷ τριγώνῳ τὸ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ἔχειν τὰς γωνίας. See further in Trend. ad de Anima I 1, 1, Comm. p. 188 seq. Bonitz ad Metaph. Δ 30, 1025 a 30. Anal. Post. I 7, 75 a 42, ἐν ταῖς ἀποδείξεσιν...τρίτον τὸ γένος τὸ ὑποκείμενον, οὗ τὰ πάθη καὶ τὰ καθ᾽ αὐτὰ συμβεβηκότα δηλοῖ ἀπόδειξις...οὐκ ἔστι τὴν ἀριθμητικὴν ἀπόδειξιν ἐφαρμόσαι ἐπὶ τὰ τοῖς μεγέθεσι συμβεβηκότα.

On πάθη see Introd. p. 114.

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