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τὸ δέ, οἷον εἴ τις...ἀναγκαῖον.] The auctor ad Heren. II 25, 39, gives two ‘signs’ of an opposite, fallacious, or refutable character, derived from the same sources, Necesse est quoniam pallet aegrotasse: aut, necesse est peperisse, quoniam sustinet puerum infantem. These illustrations had doubtless become traditional, and commonplaces in the rhetorical books.

πνευστιᾷν] ‘to have an affection or disease of the breath’. A large class of verbs in αω and ιαω are either desiderative (like those in εαω and in Latin in urio) or expressive of an affection, usually some form of disease; the latter can be extended to a ‘mental’ affection. Jelf, Gr. Gr. § 330, Obs. 3 e and Obs. 4, would separate these into two classes (1) desideratives in αω and ιαω, and (2) verbs in ιαω, which express a state of sickness [Kühner's Ausführliche Grammatik § 328. 8]. Buttmann also in his Gr. Gr. § 119 and p. 294 (Engl. Transl.) assumes a distinction between some varieties of them, which is not very clearly made out. They fall under three heads, first desideratives, second imitatives (as τυραννιᾷν, to play the tyrant); “but,” he adds, “it is improper to rank verbs denoting diseases (the third), ὀφθαλμιᾷν, ὑδεριᾷν, ψωρᾷν, &c., in the same class (as the imitatives);” these belong rather to a preceding division, viz. verbs in αω formed from nouns, “and expressing, chiefly, the having a thing or quality, and performing an action; as κομᾷν, χολᾷν, βοᾷν, γοᾷν, τολμᾷν.”

A much better and more exact account of these forms of verbs, in respect of the connexion and distinction of their senses, is to be found in Lobeck's learned note on Phrynichus, p. 79—83. “Verbs in ᾷν and ιᾷν,” (this is not true of all these verbs and requires qualification; δαμᾷν, γειτνιᾷν, περᾷν, for instance, can hardly be said to denote either a bodily, or mental affection. It should be “some verbs” or “a large class of verbs in αω”) “in both forms, are properly used of affections of mind and body. σπληνιᾷν, τὸν σπλῆνα ἀλγεῖν, λιθιᾷν, κριθιᾷν, μολυβδιᾷν express bodily ailments; δυσερωτιᾷν, νυμφιᾷν, πασχητιᾷν, and all desideratives (which have either of these terminations) express some affections of the mind, either as a malady, a longing, or in some other form.” This is an amplification of what Lobeck actually says: and it is also I think implied that the bodily affection is the primary signification, which is extended by metaphor to the mental. A long list of examples is there given, chiefly of rarer words. I have collected some examples from various Greek writers, which, as most of them do not appear in Lobeck's list, or in the grammars, I will here add.

In Aristophanes, as was to be expected, they most abound. ὀφθαλμιᾷν Ran. 192, βουβωνιᾷν ib. 1280, ληματιᾷν 494, ὠρακιᾷν 481 and Pac. 702, δαιμονιᾷν, δαιμονᾷν Thesm. 1054 (and in Aeschylus, Eur., Xenoph.), στρατηγιᾷν (quoted by Schol. on Ran. 965, Xen. Anab. VII c. 33, Dem. de F. L. § 337 “to have an itch or mania for commanding an army”), εὐρωτιᾷν Nub. 44, λημᾷν 326, μαθητιᾷν 183, χεζητιᾷν 1387, σιβυλλιᾷν Eq. 81, κορυβαντιᾷν Vesp. 8, βουλιμιᾷν Plut. 870, φονᾷν Soph. Phil. 1209 (Hesych. τὸ ἐπὶ φόνον μαίνεσθαι), τομᾷν Aj. 589 (τομῆς ἐπιθυμεῖν, Schol.), θανατιᾷν Schol. ad Phil. l. c., θανατᾷν (to long for death) Plut. Phaed. 64 B, ναυτιᾷν Theaet. 191 A, Legg. 1 639 B, κνησιᾷν Gorg. 494 E, ψωρᾷν καὶ κνησιᾷν ib. c. (Arist. Eccles. 919), ποδαγρᾷν Alcib. II 139 E, 140 A. In Aristotle we have σπουδαρχιᾷν (to be infected with the disease of office-hunting), Pol. VIII (V) 5 sub fin., ἀγωνιᾷν, of mental distress or anxiety, Rhet. I 9, 21. Many in the works on Nat. Hist., as ταυρᾷν, σκυζᾷν, ὀργᾷν, καπριᾷν (or καπρᾷν), all implying a sexual impulse, Hist. An. VI 18 §§ 12, 14, 17, VI 20, 4; ποδαγρᾷν VI 21, 5, σατυριᾷν de Gen. An. IV 3, 22, ὑδρωπιᾷν ib. v. 8, 13, ἐξυδρωπιᾷν ib. V 20, 5, στραγγουριᾷν (also Arist. Thesm. 616, Plat. Legg. XI 2, 916 A, στραγγουριᾷν, λιθᾷν). Theophr. π. ἀλαζονείας, ὠνητιᾷν, “to have a mania, or itch, for buying”, Diog. Laert. vit. Plat. III 18 “οἱ λόγοι σου, φησὶν ( Διονυσιος), γεροντιῶσιν” (are infected with, smack of, old age), καὶ ὅς, ( Πλάτων), “σοῦ δέ γε τυραννιῶσιν”. (If this is the passage referred to by Buttm. in quoting the verb τυραννιᾷν in his Grammar, above cited—no reference is given—he is wrong both in attributing to it the sense of “imitation”, and in assigning it to a separate class.)

ἐν τοῖς ἀναλυτικοῖς] Anal. Pr. II 27.

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