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ἄμφω ᾖ.] This union of neuter dual with verb singular, following the analogy of neuter plural in the same construction, is illustrated in Jelf, Gr. Gr. § 384, Obs. 1. [Kühner's Ausf. Gram. § 364.] οἷον ὅτι ἐπιβουλεύει τυρραννίδι Διονύσιος κ.τ.λ.] The stratagem by which Dionysius actually succeeded in obtaining his body-guard (496 B.C.) contrary to the wishes of the majority of the Syracusan citizens is related by Diodorus, XIII 95. See Grote, Hist. Gr. Vol. X. p. 610—614. Aristotle again refers to the attempt, Pol. III 15 ult. On the similar, and equally successful attempt of Pisistratus, Grote, H. G. Vol. III p. 208, 209. This occurred at his first usurpation of government B.C. 560. (Grote, Clin<*>on.) Theagenes of Megara (Grote, H. G. Vol. III p. 59, 60) is mentioned by Aristotle, Pol. VIII (V) 5 sub fin., together with Pisistratus and Dionysius, as one of those who had succeeded in making themselves tyrants of their native countries, by imposing upon the popular party; Aristotle notices the stratagem by which he effected his purpose (τῶν εὐπόρων τὰ κτήνη ἀποσφάξας, λαβὼν παρὰ τὸν ποταμὸν ἐπινέμοντας). Thucydides also, I 126, mentions him as having assisted Cylon in the attempt which he also made on the tyranny at Athens; Herod. V. 71. Cylon was his sonin-law, Thuc. u.s. Cylon's attempt was made in 620 B.C. (Clint. F. H. sub anno), and Theagenes κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον ἐτυραννεύει Μεγάρων (Thuc.). Cylon's attempt (and consequently the tyranny of Theagenes) took place, says Herodotus u. s., “before the age of Pisistratus.” Theagenes was contemporary with Periander of Corinth, whose reign lasted from B.C. 625—585 (Grote u.s. p. 58). αἰτῶν τὴν φυλακήν] Plat. Rep. VIII 16, 566 B, τὸ δὴ τυραννικὸν αἴτημα τὸ πολυθρύλητον ἐπὶ τούτῳ πάντες οἱ εἰς τοῦτο προβεβηκότες ἐξευρίσκουσιν, αἰτεῖν τὸν δῆμον φύλακάς τινας τοῦ σώματος, ἵνα σῶς αὐτοῖς ᾖ ὁ τοῦ δήμου βοηθός. Herod. I 59, of Pisistratus. Infr. ad I 8, 4. ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ καθόλου] “under the same universal”, i. e. genus or species; which stand to the species or individuals subordinate to each respectively, in the relation of universal to particular. τὸ καθόλου is that which is universally predicable, or predicable of every member of a class. Metaph. Δ 26, 1023 b 29, τὸ μὲν γὰρ καθόλου καὶ τὸ ὅλως λεγόμενον ὡς ὅλον τι ὂν οὕτως ἐστὶ καθόλου ὡς πολλὰ περιέχον τῷ κατηγορεῖσθαι καθ᾽ ἑκάστου καὶ ἓν ἅπαντα εἶναι ὡς ἕκαστον, οἷον ἄνθρωπον, ἵππον, θεόν, ὅτι ἅπαντα ζῷα. Ib. Z 13, 1038 b 11, τὸ δὲ καθόλου κοινόν: τοῦτο γὰρ λέγεται καθόλου ὃ πλείοσιν ὑπάρχειν πέφυκεν. Anal. Post. I 4, 73 b 26, καθόλου δὲ λέγω ὃ ἂν κατὰ πάντός τε ὑπάρχῃ καὶ καθ᾽ αὑτὸ καὶ ᾗ αὐτό (see Waitz, Comm. p. 315), of which the triangle is given as an exemplification, as the universal notion of all three-sided figures; applicable to any one of them, τὸ τυχόν, and πρῶτον, the highest or primary conception of triangles (the ἰσοσκελές, for example, a subordinate species, being only secondary): τὸ καθόλου δὲ ὑπάρχει τότε, ὅταν ἐπὶ τοῦ τυχόντος καὶ πρώτου δεικνύηται. Thus the καθόλου is equivalent to the γένος under which all the species and individuals of the entire class are included, ὃ κατὰ πάντων κατηγορεῖται, and is opposed to καθ᾽ ἕκαστον and κατὰ μέρος.
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