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ἀφαιρεθῇ] ‘it may be reduced, curtailed, retrenched’.

πρὸς τὰ ὑπάρχοντα προστιθέντες κ.τ.λ.] Not of course = πρὸς τοῖς ὑπάρ- χουσιν, ‘by adding to present resources’, but ‘with reference to them’, as πρὸς τοῦτο συμπαραλαμβάνει, and συμπαραλαμβάνουσι πρὸς ταῦτα, supr. c. 3, § 5. ‘For not only in respect of their existing resources do they become wealthier by adding to them (προστιθέντες αὐτοῖς)’.

ἐκ τῆς περὶ τὰ ἴδια ἐμπειρίας] ‘from one's own personal experience’. τὰ ἴδια are the facts which have come under one's own personal observation, i. e. the resources of our own country, and the system followed and methods adopted in providing, maintaining, and augmenting them, at home; not these alone are to be ‘inquired into’, ἱστορικὸν εἶναι, by the statesman and public speaker, but also the ‘inventions’, the practices and policy of other nations in regard of these same matters.

συνορᾶν] ‘to take a comprehensive view’, ‘to look at together’, for the purpose of comparison. See note on συϝάγειν, c. 2 § 13 p. 41.

ἱστορικόν] The termination -ικος corresponds to the English -ive, and denotes a capacity for, or tendency to. ποιητικός productive, αἰσθητικός sensitive, δεκτικός receptive, πρακτικός active, εὑρετικός inventive, ἀποδεικτικός demonstrative, and so on: though in some cases there is no corresponding English word actually in use. According to this analogy ἱστορικός is ‘inquisitive’, qualified and disposed to inquire into things in general.

When Herodotus at the opening of his work uses the term ἱστορίη, he means no more than the ‘inquiries’ or ‘researches’ which he is now collecting into a continuous narrative. (Comp. § 13, αἱ περὶ τὰς πράξεις ιστορίαι and the note there.) It is not till we come to Polybius that the word assumes its modern signification, a scientific history, a systematic work that can be employed in education, Hist. I 1, 2. It is now defined, and distinguished from other departments of study by the addition of πραγματική, I 2, 8, the study of human actions and affairs. Its scientific character, which entitles it to the epithet ‘demonstrative’, ἱστορία ἀποδεικτική, II 37, 3, ἀποδ. διήγησις, IV 40, 1, is derived from its method of tracing causes and motives of actions: ἱστορίας γὰρ ἐὰν ἀφέλῃ τις τὸ διὰ τί, καὶ πῶς, καὶ τίνος χάριν ἐπράχθη, καὶ τὸ πραχθὲν πότερα εὔλογον ἔσχε τὸ τέλος, τὸ καταλειπόμενον αὐτῆς ἀγώνισμα μὲν μάθημα δὲ οὐ γίγνεται: καὶ παραυτίκα μὲν τέρπει, πρὸς δὲ τὸ μέλλον οὐδὲν ὠφελεῖ τὸ παράπαν.

But it is only the term, not the thing, that is new in Polybius' time. Thucydides' History, though not so called, (Thucydides is called a ξυγγραφεύς, see Poppo on 1, 1, 2,) is at least as scientific in all essential points as that of Polybius, or indeed any other.

On the distinction of λόγιος, λογοποιός, and ἱστορικός, see some good observations in Dahlmann's Life of Herod. c. 6 § 2.

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