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σώματος δὲ ἀρετὴ ὑγίεια] Health, as a bodily excellence, necessarily implies vigour and the power of active exertion for the fulfilment of the duties of life, without these it is no ἀρετή at all, and no subject of congratulation to the possessor. Health is said to be the ἀρετή of the body, in reference to the doctrine of the proper ἔργον of anything; see note on p. 40 c. 2 § 12. Life is the special function of the body (Eth. Nic. I 6), and health is life in its best form, as far as the body is concerned.

Ἡρόδικος] a famous physician, native of Selymbria, in Thrace on the Propontis; to be distinguished from another less known physician, Gorgias' brother, of Leontini, Plat. Gorg. 448 B, 456 B. On Herodicus and his medical practice, see Plat. Phaedr. 227 E, and Heindorf's and Ast's notes; also Rep. III 406 A seq., where an account of him and his system of self-tormenting is given. Protag. 316 E1.

τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων] See note on c. I § 7, δἰ ἄλλας αἰτίας ἀνθρωπικάς.

1 Macaulay, in his celebrated Essay on Bacon, Edin. Rev., July, 1837, selects these opinions of Plato, which he describes at length from the passage of the Republic, as to the value of Herodicus' system of medical practice, as one of the illustrations of the contempt for all that is useful and practical which pervades the Platonic philosophy; contrasting this, much to the disadvantage of the ancient philosopher, with the opposite spirit and tendency of the Baconian system, which aims, as he assumes, exclusively at practical and attainable good, and promotes the investigation of truth solely with a view to the substantial and solid benefit of the human race. Schrader cites Dial. de Orat. XXIII 4 Ne in corpore quidem valetudinem medici probant, quae animi anxietate contingat. Parum est aegrum non esse; fortem et laetum et alacrem volo. Prope abest ab infirmitate in qua sola sanitas laudatur.

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