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πολλὰ πεπόνηται ἢ δεδαπάνηται] ‘much labour or expense has been incurred’. ἤδη] note on c. 1, 7, p. 13 ‘already’, for that reason alone, and without looking any farther. The time, trouble, and expense which we have spent in the pursuit of an object shews already, without any further consideration, or without our knowing whether it is really good or not, that it seems at any rate good to us: it consequently becomes an end to us, and all ends are good. ἀγαθόν, οὗ ἐφίεται πάντα, 6, 2. τὸ τέλος ἀγαθόν] because ‘every art, science, action, and purpose has some good in view at which it aims, and which is therefore its end in every case’. Eth. Nic. init. The two quotations from Homer are taken from Il. B 176, and 298. Vater observes that the half line quoted of the first does not convey the intention of the quotation; the ‘boast to Priam’ is not in point. The lines applicable are these: λίποιτε Ἀργείην Ἑλένην, ἧς εἵνεκα πολλοὶ Ἀχαιῶν ἐν Τροίῃ ἀπόλοντο φίλης ἀπὸ πατρίδος αἴης. The second line, αἰσχρόν τοι δηρόν τε μένειν κενεόν τε νέεσθαι, became proverbial; whence Cic. de Offic. III 2, 6 (of the result of his son's studies at Athens), ad quos cum tamquam ad mercaturam bonarum artium sis profectus, inanem redire turpissimum est.
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