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καὶ ὡς ἂν (ἀκολουθοίη) ἐκ τῶν συστοίχων] as the consequences would follow (if, whenever the topic were applied) in general, so here ‘in all the rest’, in the particular case of the rhetorical application of them, the same consequences do actually follow. Perhaps the general application of this topic, which seems to be understood in the protasis, may have a tacit reference to the more general treatment of the same in the dialectical Topics. I think that only one topic is here intended; so far as σύστοιχα are distinguished from πτώσεις, the former includes the latter as the genus the species.

With this topic compare Rhet. II 23, 2, Top. Γ 3, 118 a 34—39. The instances of πτῶσις there given are the substantive and corresponding adverb, δικαιοσύνη δικαίως, ἀνδρεία ἀνδρείως. σύστοιχα and πτώσεις are explained, distinguished, (quite unintelligibly, however, were our information derived solely from this place,) and the use of them illustrated, in Top. B 9, 114 a 26—b 5. σύστοιχα are coordinate logical notions, as δίκαια and δίκαιος with δικαιοσύνη, ἀνδρεῖα and ἀνδρεῖος with ἀνδρεία; and again a 38, δικαιοσύνη δίκαιος δίκαιος δικαίως are coordinates. Also, a 29, τὰ ποιητικά and τὰ φυλακτικά are coordinate with the things which they produce and preserve, as τὰ ὑγιεινά with ὑγίεια, τὰ εὐεκτικά with εὐεξία. πτώσεις are these same coordinates in their grammatical aspects—terms that can be similarly predicated, and applicable to the same things—and they are therefore sometimes identified with the others. The πτώσεις ‘inflexions’ of the same word are not confined to the mere ‘declension’ of nouns, substantive or adjective, (the nominative is the casus rectus, or πτῶσις ὀρθή, improperly so called, the noun in its upright or normal state or position, the casus or πτώσεις are fallings away, declensions, from that standard typical form by a change of termination1,) but include adverbs, the generic and numerical terminations, masc. and femin., singular, dual, and plural, and the inflexions of verbs; in fact, as it appears, any change of termination which a root undergoes in passing into different parts of speech, and the inflexions of these: in Aristotle πτῶσις is a ‘declension’ from a root. This logical signification of σύστοιχος and συστοιχία is ‘transferred’ by metaphor, from the ranks of an army or of a chorus in the theatre (like ἀντίστροφος), to logic or grammar: but in either of the two senses, they always denote things on the same level, coordinates. Trendel. El. Log. Arist. 75, Bonitz ad Metaph. A 5, 986 a 23. Xenophon, Conv. 2, 20, has ἀντιστοιχεῖν in the sense of ‘to be one's opposite, or partner in a dance’. Anab. V 4, 12, ἔστησαν ἀιὰ ἑκατὸν μάλιστα, ὥσπερ οἱ χοροί, ἀντιστοιχοῦντες ἀλλήλοις, ‘in opposite, corresponding ranks’. In Met. l. c., and Eth. N. I 4, 1085 b 7, it is applied to the ten parallel rows or columns of the opposite ἀρχαί of the Pythagoreans, the two opposite members of the ten being in each case a συστοιχία, or pair of coordinate conceptions. Hence σύστοιχα are notions of the same order: as the four elements, which have the same rank, belong to the same row, i. e. order in nature, de Caelo 302 a 29; and hence, notions which fall under the same genus, as black and white, sweet and bitter; and even such as are under different genera, so long as they have something in common, de Sens. c. 7, 447 b 30, 448 a 14 and 16.

In Aristotle therefore σύστοιχα and πτώσεις, though occasionally identified, are, when strictly and properly applied, distinguished thus: σύστοιχο are logical notions or conceptions corresponding to things of the same rank or order in nature, having a wider and more comprehensive sphere of application than the πτώσεις, which are grammatical like the ‘declensions’, from which the name is derived, and include the various deflexions or inflexions, expressed by changes of termination, from a root.

Cicero's coniugata, which are defined Top. III 12, correspond to Aristotle's πτώσεις. Coniugata dicuntur quae sunt ex verbis generis eiusdem. Eiusdem autem generis verba sunt, quae orta ab uno varie commutantur, ut sapiens sapienter sapientia. Haec verborum coniugatio συζυγία dicitur, ex qua huiusmodi est argumentum: si compascuus ager est, ius est compascere.

Besides the authorities already referred to, see on this subject Waitz on περὶ ἑρμ. c. 2, 16 b 1; Anal. Post. II 15, 79 b 6; Trendel. Kategorienlehre, p. 27 seq.; Donaldson, New Crat. § 227.

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