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The following definitions of good are repeated from c. 6. 2, with a few trifling alterations. This section is translated, and the illogical character of the construction explained, in Introd. pp. 177—8. αὑτῷ δὲ ἀγαθὸν τὸ πρὸς αὑτὸ ταῦτα πεπονθός] This clause contrasts the notion of good in itself, καθ᾽ αὑτό, here expressed by the dative αὑτῷ ‘to’, or, ‘for and by itself’, with good as the universal τέλος, the object of all men's aims and aspirations. Schrader, Vater, Buhle, and Bonitz (Aristotelische Studien, I p. 89), are in favour of αὐτῷ and αὐτόν, which would thus contrast ‘good to the individual with good in general’. Eth. N. VII 13, init. ἀγαθὸν διχῶς, τὸ μὲν ἁπλῶς, τὸ δέ τινι. Top. Γ I, 116 b 8, τὸ ἁπλῶς ἀγαθὸν τοῦ τινὶ αἱρετώτερον. This use of the pronoun is quite in conformity with ordinary Aristotelian usage, as infra § 35, τὸ αὐτῷ καὶ ἁπλῶς, and frequently elsewhere. Vater says that the Greek Scholiast gives αὐτῷ as well as αὐτό: and Bonitz adds that Muretus' rendering, cuique autem bonum id quod ita est affectum ad ipsum, shews that he followed this reading. Nevertheless it appears that there is no manuscript authority for the change, and Bekker and Spengel have retained αὑτῷ and αὑτό. ἀνάγκη...μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν εἶναι] Top. Γ 2, 117 a 16, ἔτι τὰ πλείω ἀγαθὰ τῶν ἐλαττόνων (αἱρετώτερα), ἢ ἁπλῶς, ἢ ὅταν τὰ ἕτερα τοῖς ἑτέροις ἐνυπάρχῃ, τὰ ἐλάττω ἐν τοῖς πλείοσιν. Two ἐνστάσεις (‘reprehensions of the fallax’ Bacon calls them, Colours of Good and Evil), objections, or instances opposed to the universal validity of this rule, are next given: (1) when one thing is done for the sake of another, to attain a certain end, as getting well, healthy practices for the sake of health; in this case the two together are in no way preferable to health alone: (2) and things not good accom panied by a single good (so Waitz), may be preferable to several good things, as happiness, in conjunction with something not good, to justice and courage together, καὶ ταῦτα μεθ᾽ ἡδονῆς μᾶλλον ἢ ἄνευ ἡδονῆς (αἱρετώτερά ἐστιν) καὶ ταὐτὰ μετ᾽ ἀλυπίας ἢ μετὰ λύπης. ὑπερέχει γάρ, κ.τ.λ.] On ὑπεροχή as a test of excellence, besides other topics of this chapter, comp. c. 9, 25, 39, Eth. N. IV 8 init. there quoted. The opposition of the active and passive, superiority and inferiority, occurs Eth. N. ib. 1124 b 10, τὸ μὲν γὰρ ὑπερέχοντος, τὸ δ᾽ ὑπερεχομένου.
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