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ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ χαλεπώτερον καὶ σπανιώτερον μεῖζον] supr. § 14. An exemplification of this topic is found in Eth. Nic. VIII 15, 1163 a 12, οἱ μὲν γὰρ παθόντες τοιαῦτά φασι λαβεῖν παρὰ τῶν εὐεργετῶν ἃ μικρὰ ἦν ἐκείνοις καὶ ἐξῆν παρ᾽ ἑτέρων λαβεῖν, κατασμικρίζοντες: οἱ δ̓ ἀνάπαλιν τὰ μέγιστα τῶν παῤ αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἃ παῤ ἄλλων οὐκ ἦν, καὶ ἐν κινδύνοις ἢ τοιαύταις χρείαις. The additional value or importance for good or for evil that things, especially actions, acquire at particular ages or times of life (illustrated in the Topics), in particular places, at particular times, at particular critical seasons and occasions (καιροί), or from the special nature of the powers or faculties that are called into exercise (δυνάμεις), is derived from the scarcity of such things and actions, and the difficulty of obtaining or performing them. The καιρός in two aspects is exemplified in the Topics, Γ 2, 117 a 26—b 21. Add Prov. XV. 23, a word spoken in due season, how good is it. χρόνοι is illustrated by the case, already quoted, of Sir Phil. Sidney, and the cup of cold water at the battle of Zutphen [p. 84]: δυνάμεις, as Aristotle himself tells us, applies to cases in which any one does something ‘beyond his powers’, above his ordinary level, and more than you would expect from him; and παρὰ τοὺς ὁμοίους is exemplified by the epigram and the saying of Iphicrates. καὶ εἰ οὕτως κ.τ.λ.] ‘and if such things be done (οὕτως), at particular places or times, they will acquire a magnitude and importance in things (i. e. actions) right, and good, and just, and their opposites’. οὕτως may however mean under particular circumstances. τὸ ἐπίγραμμα τῷ ὀλυμπιονίκῃ] The substantive taking the same case as the verb from which it is derived is illustrated in the dative by Matthiae, Gr. Gr. § 390. Stallbaum on Phaedo 88 C. Soph. 252 D. and Euthyphr. 13 D, 15 A. Add, Aesch. Agam. 415, πτεροῖς ὀπαδοῖς ὕπνου κελεύθοις. Soph. Oed. Col. τὰ γὰρ δόλῳ τῷ μὴ δικαίῳ κτήματ᾽ οὐχὶ σώζεται. Trach. 668, Ἡρακλεῖ δωρημάτων. Aj. 696, Wunder ad loc. Eur. Ion, 508, τὰ θεόθεν τέκνα θνατοῖς. Iph. T. 1384, οὐρανοῦ πέσημα (i. e. τὸ ἀπ᾽ οὐρανοῦ πεπτωκός). Plat. Parmen. 128 C, Theaet. 177 A, Gorg. 522 D, Symp. 182 D, Rep. VI 493 D, 498 B. Ar. Pol. VII (VI) 5, 1320 a 32, βοήθεια τοῖς ἀπόροις. Some examples of an analogous construction, in which a substantive follows the ordinary construction of a verb, with prepos. and subst., are given by Stallbaum on Phaedo 99 B. Add to these, Plat. Protag. 354 A, Gorg. 472 E, Rep. II 378 D, Eur. Herc. Fur. 1334, στέφανος Ἑλλήνων ὕπο, Arist. Eth. N. X 9, 1179 a 25, ἐπιμέλεια τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὑπὸ Θεῶν, Categ. 8 b 32, μεταβολὴ ὑπὸ νόσου, de Anima B. 8, 11, 420 b 27, ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ ἀέρος ὑπὸ τῆς ψυχῆς. This epigram is expressly attributed to Simonides by Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1761, 24 (Buhle). It is found in the Anthol. I 80 (ed. Jacobs), No. 107 of the Epigrams attributed to Simonides. Bergk, Fragm. Lyr. p. 793 [p. 921, 2nd ed], Simonidis Fragm. 166. Eustathius l. c. explains ἄσιλλα, σκεῦός τι ἰχθυηρόν. It is described by Hemsterhuis ad Hesychium s.v. ἀστυπολεῖ, as a iugum, a sort of wooden yoke, which was carried over the two shoulders to support the fish-baskets. Alciphron I, 1. p. 6, εὐθὺς οὖν ὀψῶναι πλήσιον, καὶ τὰς ἀσίλλας ἐπωμίους ἀνελόμενοι, καὶ τὰς ἑκατέρωθεν σπυρίδας ἐξαρτήσαντες (quoted in Anthol.). Otherwise called τύλη. Arist. Ach. 860, 954. Diog. Laert. IX 53, of Protagoras, who πρῶτος τὴν καλουμένην τύλην, ἐφ᾽ ἧς τὰ φόρτια βαστάζουσιν, εὗρεν, ὥς φησιν Ἀριστοτέλης ἐν τῷ περὶ παιδείας: φορμοφόρος γὰρ ἦ, ὡς καὶ Ἐπικουρός πού φησι. So that Protagoras may be added to the examples of ἐξ οἵων εἰς οἷα, I 9. 31, or ἐξ ὧν ὑπῆρχε ταῦτα. The exclamation of Iphicrates ‘from what I rose to this’ (from what an origin this my fortune was made) is repeated in a more correct form (Buhle) in c. 9. 31, ἐξ οἵων εἰς οἷα, as is also part of the Epigram. Plutarch, Apophth. Reg. et Imp., under the head of Iphicrates, Nos. 1 and 5, has these notices of him. Ἰφικράτης δοκῶν υἱὸς εἶναι σκυτοτόμου κατεφρονεῖτο: δόξαν δὲ τότε πρῶτος ἔσχε ὅτε τραυματίαν πολέμιον ἄνδρα μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων ζῶντα συναρπάσας εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ τριήρη μ́ετένεγκεν. No. 5, πρὸς δὲ Ἁρμόδιον τὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ Ἁρμοδίου ἀπόγονον εἰς δυσγένειαν αὐτῷ λοιδορούμενον ἔφη, τὸ μὲν ἐμὸν ἀπ᾽ ἐμοῦ γένος ἄρχεται, τὸ δὲ σὸν ἐν σοὶ παύεται.
1 καιρός ‘due season’, ‘the right time’, ‘occasion’, ‘opportunity’, the time suitable, appropriate, to the performance of anything, is that form of good which comes under the Category of time, χρόνος; Eth. Nic. I 4, 1096 a 26. On this the Paraphrast (Andronicus Rhodius) notes, ἔστι γὰρ ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ἐπιτήδειος ἑκάστῳ χρόνος. Pind. Pyth. IX 82, ὁ καιρὸς παντὸς ἔχει κορυφάν. Ib. IV 286 (508). Soph. Electr. 75, καιρὸς ἀνδράσιν μέγιστος ἔργου παντὸς ἔστ᾽ ἐπιστάτης. Philoct. 837.
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