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καὶ ὅταν τόδε μὲν τῷδε ἕπηται κ.τ.λ.] ‘and whensoever one thing ‘follows’ (i. e. attends upon, always accompanies it, in one of its five senses) ‘another, but not reciprocally (or conversely, the other does not always follow it)’. Any good A, which is necessarily accompanied by another good B, where the converse does not hold, must be the greater of the two; because the one (A) always implies the presence of B, and includes the use of it, whereas this is not always true of the converse; and when there is no such reciprocal consequence A must be superior to B. Let A and B be health and life; life invariably accompanies health, but health by no means invariably accompanies life: and therefore from this point of view health may be regarded as superior to life.

ἕπεται δὲ τῷ ἅμα κ.τ.λ.] On the various senses of ἕπεσθαι and ἀκολουθεῖν see note on c. 6, 3.

δυνάμει: ἐνυπάρχει γάρ κ.τ.λ.] ‘Potential concomitance or accompaniment’, is explained as ‘the inherence, (i. e. the virtual existence, which may be developed into actual, active, existence, or realized, ἐνεργείᾳ,) of the use or practice of the consequent or concomitant in the other’, that namely which it accompanies. The higher crime of sacrilege or temple robbing, for instance, necessarily implies, virtually contains, the lower crime of simple theft or fraud (cheating1), the lower habit always accompanies, but not necessarily in a state of activity, the higher, and is included in it: omne maius continet in se minus. Or thus, the use of cheating, fraud, resides, is included in, sacrilege, not actually, in a fully developed realized state, ἐνεργείᾳ, but in a dormant state, latent; it is a faculty or capacity, always ready and liable to be developed into actual sacrilege.

The use of the general topic of ‘consequence’ is explained, Top Γ 2, 117 a 5, ἔτι ὅταν δύο τινὰ σφόδρα αὑτοῖς παραπλήσια καὶ μὴ δυνώμεθα ὑπεροχὴν μηδεμίαν συνιδεῖν τοῦ ἑτέρου πρὸς τὸ ἕτερον, ὁρᾷν ἀπὸ τῶν παρεπομένων: γὰρ ἕπεται μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν τοῦθ᾽ αἱρετώτερον. ἂν δ̓ τὰ ἑπόμενα κακά, τὸ ἔλαττον ἀκολουθεῖ κακόν, τοῦθ̓ αἱρετώτερον. ὄντων γὰρ ἀμφοτέρων αἱρετῶν οὐδὲν κωλύει δυσχερές τι παρέπεσθαι. διχῶς δ̓ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἕπεσθαι σκέψις κ.τ.λ. See note, c. 6, 3.

1 ἀποστερεῖν is properly ‘to defraud or cheat’, and especially applied to keeping back a deposit. Rhet. II 6. 3, τὸ ἀποστερῆσαι παρακατάθηκην. Gaisf. quotes Schol. Aristoph. Plut. 373, ἀποστερῶ ἐστὶν ὅταν παρακαταθήκην παραλαβὼν εἰς διαβολὴν χωρήσω καὶ οὐκ ἐθέλω διδόναι αὐτῷ ἔλαβον. [See Shilleto's note on Thuc. 1 69, 1. s.]

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